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标准消防十条法则》(英语:Ten Standard Firefighting Orders)是美国国家森林局特遣队所制定的系统化规则,以减少人员伤亡、增加消防效率。[1][2]

制定编辑

该规则源于美军的《哨兵通令英语General Orders for Sentries》(士兵站岗工作的安全、效率指导)。日后出台的《18种警觉情况》(18 Watchout Situations)又进一步为《标准消防十条法则》的内容作出了补充说明。[1]该规则原本是按照重要性排序的,但1980年代人们对顺序作出了调整并缩短了规则长度,这样每一条规则的首字母最后能拼成“Fire Orders”,便于记忆,只是2002年该规则又被改回原状。[2]这些消防规则主要是在强调让消防员在有限的时间内安全逃离危险。[3]

包括肖松尼国家森林1937年布莱克沃特大火海伦娜国家森林1949年曼恩峡谷大火英语Mann Gulch Fire在内的数起消防员死伤惨重的大火让人们对消防员生命安全重视起来,进而制定了这一系列的规则。这些规则可用作估测消防行动的后果,只是有一部分消防员批评这些规则难以遵守。[2][4]

内容编辑

  1. Keep informed on fire weather conditions and forecasts. (注意火灾天气情况、天气预报。)
  2. Know what your fire is doing at all times.(时刻记得火势走向。)
  3. Base all actions on current and expected behavior of the fire.(一切行动基于当前火情、预测的火情。)
  4. Identify escape routes and safety zones and make them known.(寻找出合适的逃生路径、安全区,并告知他人。)
  5. Post lookouts when there is possible danger.(有潜在危险时需通报。)
  6. Be alert. Keep calm. Think clearly. Act decisively.(时刻警觉。保持镇定。思维清晰。行动果断。)
  7. Maintain prompt communications with your forces, your supervisor, and adjoining forces.(保持与队友、上级、同盟间的即时联系。)
  8. Give clear instructions and ensure they are understood.(给出明确的指令,确保对方理解。)
  9. Maintain control of your forces at all times.(控制住队友的行动,量力而为。)
  10. Fight fire aggressively, having provided for safety first.(大力灭火,安全第一。)

参考资料编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Standard Firefighting Orders and 18 Watchout Situations. Risk Management. USDA Forest Service. [2013-07-02]. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Weick, Karl E.; Kathleen M. Sutcliffe. Managing the Unexpected: Resilient Performance in an Age of Uncertainty 2nd. Wiley. 2011: 141. ISBN 9780470534236. 
  3. ^ on Wildland Firefighter Safety | Standard Orders and Watch Outs. California Professional Firefighters Associati. 2007 [2013-07-02]. 
  4. ^ Wilkens, John. Deadly 1956 chaos led to 'firefighting orders' Rules held sacred, but effectiveness under fire. The San Diego Union-Tribune. 2006-11-25 [2013-07-02].