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紅圈表示大規模滅絕地,黑點則是規模未知的滅絕地

缺氧事件大洋缺氧事件指的是海洋中氧氣缺乏的一段時期,期間海水中的硫化氫H2S)含量大幅增加[1]。它在地質史上曾多次發生,同時伴隨而來的是生物集群灭绝[2]。因此生物地層學上將缺氧時間當成時間劃分的一個重要指標[3]。它的成因可能是氣候變暖、溫室氣體增加及洋流速度變緩等,而釋放出大量二氧化碳的火山作用是其主要外部成因[4]

絕大部分的缺氧事件絕大部分的都發生在侏羅紀白堊紀等氣溫上升、二氧化碳含量增加的時期,缺氧事件中平均海水表面溫度超過25 °C(77 °F),而現代則不過13 °C(55 °F)。氣溫上升的原因可能是原本封存于地殼中的天然氣大規模釋放[5][6][7][8]

參考文獻编辑

  1. ^ Timothy W. Lyons, Ariel D. Anbar, Silke Severmann, Clint Scott, and Benjamin C. Gill. Tracking Euxinia in the Ancient Ocean: A Multiproxy Perspective and Proterozoic Case Study. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. January 19, 2009, 37: 507–53 [April 11, 2014]. Bibcode:2009AREPS..37..507L. doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.36.031207.124233. 
  2. ^ Wignall, Paul B.; Richard J. Twitchett. Oceanic Anoxia and the End Permian Mass Extinction. Science. 5265. 24 May 1996, 272 (5265): 1155–1158 [12 September 2011]. Bibcode:1996Sci...272.1155W. PMID 8662450. doi:10.1126/science.272.5265.1155. 
  3. ^ Peters, Walters; Modowan K.E. The Biomarker Guide, Volume 2: Biomarkers and Isotopes in the Petroleum Exploration and Earth History. Cambridge University Press. 2005: 749. ISBN 978-0-521-83762-0. 
  4. ^ Katja M Meyer; Lee R Kump. Oceanic euxinia in Earth history: Causes and consequences. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. January 9, 2008, 36: 251–288 [2014-04-11]. Bibcode:2008AREPS..36..251M. doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.36.031207.124256. 
  5. ^ What would 3 degrees mean?. [2008-07-08]. (原始内容存档于2008-07-19). 
  6. ^ Mark Lynas. Six Steps to Hell: The Facts on Global Warming. May 1, 2007 [2008-07-08]. (原始内容存档于2009-05-02). 
  7. ^ Gronstal, A. L. Gasping for Breath in the Jurassic Era. Imaginova. 2008-04-24 [2008-04-24]. (原始内容存档于29 April 2008). 
  8. ^ Pearce, C. R.; Cohen, A. S.; Coe, A. L.; Burton, K. W. Molybdenum isotope evidence for global ocean anoxia coupled with perturbations to the carbon cycle during the Early Jurassic. Geology (Geological Society of America). March 2008, 36 (3): 231–234 [2008-04-24]. Bibcode:2008Geo....36..231P. doi:10.1130/G24446A.1. (原始内容存档于29 April 2008). 

擴展閲讀编辑

  • Kashiyama, Yuichiro; Nanako O. Ogawa; Junichiro Kuroda; Motoo Shiro; Shinya Nomoto; Ryuji Tada; Hiroshi Kitazato; Naohiko Ohkouchi. Diazotrophic cyanobacteria as the major photoautotrophs during mid-Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events: Nitrogen and carbon isotopic evidence from sedimentary porphyrin. Organic Geochemistry. May 2008, 39 (5): 532–549. doi:10.1016/j.orggeochem.2007.11.010. 
  • Kump, L.R.; Pavlov, A. & Arthur, M.A. Massive release of hydrogen sulfide to the surface ocean and atmosphere during intervals of oceanic anoxia. Geology. 2005, 33 (5): 397–400. Bibcode:2005Geo....33..397K. doi:10.1130/G21295.1. 
  • Hallam, A. Catastrophes and lesser calamities: the causes of mass extinctions. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. 2004: 91–607. ISBN 0-19-852497-8. 
  • Demaison G.J. and Moore G.T., (1980),"Anoxic environments and oil source bed genesis". American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) Bulletin, Vol.54, 1179–1209.

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