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火山爆發指數(VEI)與噴出物體積的关系。

火山爆發指數Volcanic Explosivity Index,簡稱VEI)是1982年美國地質調查局(USGS)的克里斯·紐豪爾教授(Chris Newhall)和夏威夷大學馬諾阿分校斯蒂芬·塞爾夫提出的量表,以噴出物體積、火山雲和定性觀測用來量度火山爆發的強烈程度。

火山爆發指數採用開放式尺度,歷史上最大型的火山爆發強度為8級,而非爆炸性噴發強度為0級,指數每增1級表示火山爆發威力大10倍。在奧陶紀更新世之間發生的已发现的火山爆發指數8級的火山爆發共有47次,其中42次在過去3,600萬年內發生,最近一次是在26,500年前發生的陶波火山爆發。[1]

分級编辑

火山爆發指數 噴出物體積 分類 描述 熱柱 頻率 例子 過去10,000年發生次數*
0 < 10,000 m³ 夏威夷式 non-explosive < 100 m 持續 冒納羅亞火山 很多
1 > 10,000 m³ 夏威夷式/斯通波利式 gentle 100-1000 m 每天 斯特龍博利島 很多
2 > 1,000,000 m³ 斯通波利式/伏爾坎寧式 explosive 1-5 km 每週 加勒拉斯火山 (1993) 3,477
3 > 10,000,000 m³ 伏爾坎寧式/培雷式 severe 3-15 km 每年 Cordón Caulle (1921) 868
4 > 0.1 km³ 培雷式/普林尼式 cataclysmic 10-25 km ≥ 10年 艾雅法拉火山 (2010) 421
5 > 1 km³ 普林尼式 paroxysmal > 25 km ≥ 50年 聖海倫斯火山 (1980) 166
6 > 10 km³ 普林尼式/超普林尼式 colossal > 25 km ≥ 100年 喀拉喀托火山 (1883)、於埃納普蒂納火山 (1600)、皮納圖博火山(1991) 51
7 > 100 km³ 普林尼式/超普林尼式 super-colossal > 25 km ≥ 1,000年 坦博拉火山 (1815)、米諾斯火山爆發 5 (+疑似2)
8 > 1,000 km³ 超普林尼式 mega-colossal > 25 km ≥ 10,000年 陶波火山 (25,360 BC)、多峇火山 (74,000 BC)、黃石火山630,000 BC 0


火山爆發指數 噴出物體積 分類 描述 熱柱 頻率 對流層
注入
平流層
注入[2]
例子
0 < 104 m3 Hawaiian Effusive < 100 m continuous negligible none
Hoodoo Mountain (c. 7050 BC),[3] Erebus (1963), Kīlauea (1977), Socorro Island (1993), Mawson Peak (2006), Dallol (2011), Piton de la Fournaise (2017)
1 > 104 m3 Hawaiian / Strombolian Gentle 100 m – 1 km daily minor none
Stromboli (since Roman times), Nyiragongo (2002), Raoul Island (2006)
2 > 106 m3 Strombolian / Vulcanian Explosive 1–5 km every two weeks moderate none
Unzen (1792), Cumbre Vieja (1949), Galeras (1993), Sinabung (2010)
3 > 107 m3 Vulcanian / Peléan/Sub-Plinian Catastrophic 3–15 km 3 months substantial possible
Lassen Peak (1915), Nevado del Ruiz (1985), Soufrière Hills (1995), Ontake (2014)
4 > 0.1 km3 Peléan / Plinian/Sub-Plinian Cataclysmic > 10 km (Plinian or sub-Plinian) 18 months substantial definite
Laki (1783), Kīlauea (1790), Mayon (1814), Pelée (1902), Colima (1913), Sakurajima (1914), Katla (1918), Galunggung (1982), Eyjafjallajökull (2010), Nabro (2011), Calbuco (2015)
5 > 1 km3 Peléan/Plinian Paroxysmic > 10 km (Plinian) 12 years substantial significant
Vesuvius (79), Fuji (1707), Tarawera (1886), Agung (1963), St. Helens (1980), El Chichón (1982), Hudson (1991), Puyehue (2011)
6 > 10 km3 Plinian / Ultra-Plinian Colossal > 20 km 50–100 yrs substantial substantial
Laach Lake Volcano (c. 12,900 BC), Nevado de Toluca (10,500 BP), Veniaminof (c. 1750 BC), Lake Ilopango (450), Ceboruco (930), Huaynaputina (1600), Krakatoa (1883), Santa Maria (1902), Novarupta (1912), Pinatubo (1991)
7 > 100 km3 Ultra-Plinian Super-colossal > 20 km 500–1,000 yrs substantial substantial
Aira Caldera (22,000 BC), Kikai Caldera (4,300 BC), Cerro Blanco (c. 2300 BC), Thera (c. 1620 BC), Taupo (180), Baekdu (946), Samalas (1257), Tambora (1815)
8 > 1000 km3 Ultra-Plinian Mega-colossal > 20 km > 50,000 yrs[4][5] vast vast
La Garita (26,300,000 BC), Cerro Galán (2,200,000 BC), Huckleberry Ridge Tuff (2,100,000 BC), Yellowstone (630,000 BC), Whakamaru (in TVZ) (254,000 BC),[6] Toba (74,000 BC), Taupo (25,360 BC)

另見编辑

2011 Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens1912 eruption of NovaruptaYellowstone CalderaAD 79 Eruption of Mount Vesuvius1902 eruption of Santa María1280 eruption of Quilotoa1600 eruption of Huaynaputina2010 eruptions of EyjafjallajökullYellowstone Caldera1783 eruption of Laki1477 eruption of Bárðarbunga1650 eruption of KolumboVolcanic activity at SantoriniToba catastrophe theoryKuril IslandsBaekdu MountainKikai Caldera1991 eruption of Mount PinatuboLong Island (Papua New Guinea)1815 eruption of Mount Tambora1883 eruption of Krakatoa2010 eruptions of Mount MerapiBilly Mitchell (volcano)Taupo VolcanoTaupo VolcanoTaupo VolcanoCrater Lake 
每個氣泡的表觀體積與噴出的火山灰的體積成線性比例,按照圖例中的噴發時間進行顏色編碼。粉色線表示聚合邊界,藍色線表示張裂邊界,黃色斑點表示熱點。

參考文獻编辑

  1. ^ Mason, Ben G.; Pyle, David M.; Oppenheimer, Clive. The size and frequency of the largest explosive eruptions on Earth. Bulletin of Volcanology. 2004, 66 (8): 735–748. doi:10.1007/s00445-004-0355-9. 
  2. ^ Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI). Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. [August 21, 2014]. (原始内容存档于November 10, 2011). 
  3. ^ https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=320080
  4. ^ Dosseto, A. Turner, S. P.; Van-Orman, J. A., 编. Timescales of Magmatic Processes: From Core to Atmosphere. Wiley-Blackwell. 2011. ISBN 978-1-4443-3260-5. 
  5. ^ Rothery, David A. Volcanoes, Earthquakes and Tsunamis. Teach Yourself. 2010. 
  6. ^ Froggatt, P. C.; Nelson, C. S.; Carter, L.; Griggs, G.; Black, K. P. An exceptionally large late Quaternary eruption from New Zealand. Nature. 13 February 1986, 319 (6054): 578–582 [23 August 2010]. Bibcode:1986Natur.319..578F. doi:10.1038/319578a0. 

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