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焦點(縮寫為:foc)是一種語法類別,用於確定句子的哪一部分能夠提供新的、不可推導的或對比的信息。[1]焦點與信息結構英语Information structure有關。對比焦點尤其是指與對話者 (語言學)英语對話者的前提相反之信息編碼。[2][3][4]

相關詞條包括評論英语Topic and comment以及述位英语Topic and comment(Rheme)。[4][5][6]

參見编辑

註釋编辑

  1. ^ Halliday, M., Notes on Transitivity and Theme in English (Part 2), Journal of Linguistics 3.: 206, 1967 
  2. ^ Givon, Talmy, Syntax: An Introduction Vol. II, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Co., 2001 
  3. ^ Lambrecht, Knud, Information Structure and Sentence Form: Topic, Focus, and the Mental Representation of Discourse Referents, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Camacho, José; Rodrigo Gutiérrez-Bravo; Liliana Sánchez, Information Structure in the Languages of the Americas: Syntactic Approaches, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2010 
  5. ^ Bates, Elizabeth; Brian MacWhinney, Dirven, Rene; V. Fried, 编, A functionalist approach to the acquisition of grammar, Functionalism in Linguistics (Amersterdam: John Benjamins), 1987: 209–264. 
  6. ^ Mel’čuk, Igor A., Communicative Organization in Natural Language: The Semantic-Communicative Structure of Sentences, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2001 

參考文獻编辑

  • Cinque, Guglielmo (1993). 'A null theory of phrase and compound stress'. Linguistic Inquiry 24:239-267.
  • Neeleman, Ad and Tanya Reinhart (1998). 'Scrambling and the PF-Interface'. In The Projection of Arguments, CSLI Publications, 309-353.
  • Ocampo, Francisco (2003). On the notion of focus in spoken Spanish: An empirical approach. In Theory, Practice, and Acquisition, ed. by Paula Kempchinsky and Carlos-Eduardo Pineros. Sommerville: Cascadilla Press, 207-226.
  • Pereltsvaig, Asya (2002). 'Topic and focus as linear notions: evidence from Russian and Italian'. Proceedings of the Conference on the Interaction between Syntax and Pragmatics at UCL.
  • Szendrői, Kriszta (2004). 'Focus and the interaction between syntax and pragmatics'. Lingua 114(3), 229-254.
  • Xu, Y., C. X. Xu and X. Sun (2004). 'On the temporal domain of focus'. In Proceedings of International Conference on Speech Prosody 2004, Nara, Japan: 81-84.