打开主菜单

计算机网络

采用单一技术相互连接的自治计算机
(重定向自电脑网络

计算机网络(英語:computer network),通常也简称網路,是指容許节点分享資源的數碼電信網絡。在電腦網絡,電腦設備會透過節點之間的連接(数据链路)互相交換數據。該些数据链路建立在有線介質无线介質上,比如双绞线光纖電纜英语Fiber-optic cableWi-Fi

用於建立、路由及终止數據的電腦網絡設備即為網絡節點[1]。節點包括像个人电脑电话服务器般的主机;包括交換器路由器在內的網絡硬件。它們一般以網路位址作識別碼。當一個設備能夠與另一設備交換資訊時,便可視它們倆已连接成网络,不論它們是否直連。專用通信協定在大多數分層中位於其他更通用的通信協定之上。要維持網絡的可靠性,便需要有一定的網絡管理技能

電腦網絡為海量应用程序及服務背後的基礎。比如存取互聯網数字视频數位音訊;共享應用及存儲服务器、列印機、傳真機;收發電子郵件即時通訊訊息。電腦網絡可依照传输介质、传输协议、 網絡大小、拓撲流量控制機制、建立目的等因素區分。最廣為人知的電腦網絡為互聯網

歷史编辑

電腦網絡發展的里程碑包括:

分类编辑

计算机网络除了可以按照右方的覆盖范围分类之外计算机网络应用可按照不同节点之间的功能关系分为:

网络基础理论编辑

拓扑结构编辑

计算机网络的拓扑结构可分为:

組成硬件编辑

传输媒体编辑

计算机网络的传输媒体(Transmission Media)

网络协议编辑

相关的机构与厂商编辑

参见编辑

参考文献编辑

引用编辑

  1. ^ Computer network definition, [2011-11-12], (原始内容存档于2012-01-21) 
  2. ^ История о том, как пионер кибернетики оказался не нужен СССР [The story of how a cybernetics pioneer became unnecessary to the USSR]. ria.ru. МИА «Россия сегодня». 2010-08-09 [2015-03-04] (俄语). Главным делом жизни Китова, увы, не доведенным до практического воплощения, можно считать разработку плана создания компьютерной сети (Единой государственной сети вычислительных центров – ЕГСВЦ) для управления народным хозяйством и одновременно для решения военных задач. Этот план Анатолий Иванович предложил сразу в высшую инстанцию, направив в январе 1959 года письмо генсеку КПСС Никите Хрущеву. Не получив ответа (хотя начинание на словах было поддержано в различных кругах), осенью того же года он заново направляет на самый верх письмо, приложив к нему 200-страничный детальный проект, получивший название 'Красной книги'. [One can regard the magnum opus of Kitov's career as his elaboration of the plan – unfortunately never brought into practical form – for the establishment of a computer network (the Unified State Network of Computer Centres – EGSVTs) for the control of the national economy and simultaneously for the resolution of military tasks. Anatolii Ivanovich presented this plan directly to the highest levels, sending a letter in January 1959 to the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Nikita Khrushchev. Not receiving a reply (although supported in various circles), in the autumn of the same year he again sent a letter to the very top, appending a 200-page detailed project plan, called the 'Red Book'] 
  3. ^ 1960 - Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) Transistor Demonstrated. The Silicon Engine (Computer History Museum). 
  4. ^ Triumph of the MOS Transistor. YouTube. Computer History Museum. 6 August 2010 [21 July 2019]. 
  5. ^ Raymer, Michael G. The Silicon Web: Physics for the Internet Age. CRC Press. 2009: 365. ISBN 9781439803127. 
  6. ^ Transistors - an overview. ScienceDirect. [8 August 2019]. 
  7. ^ Fossum, Jerry G.; Trivedi, Vishal P. Fundamentals of Ultra-Thin-Body MOSFETs and FinFETs. Cambridge University Press. 2013: vii. ISBN 9781107434493. 
  8. ^ Omura, Yasuhisa; Mallik, Abhijit; Matsuo, Naoto. MOS Devices for Low-Voltage and Low-Energy Applications. John Wiley & Sons. 2017: 53. ISBN 9781119107354. 
  9. ^ Whiteley, Carol; McLaughlin, John Robert. Technology, Entrepreneurs, and Silicon Valley. Institute for the History of Technology. 2002. ISBN 9780964921719. These active electronic components, or power semiconductor products, from Siliconix are used to switch and convert power in a wide range of systems, from portable information appliances to the communications infrastructure that enable the Internet. The company's power MOSFETs — tiny solid-state switches, or metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors — and power integrated circuits are widely used in cell phones and notebook computers to manage battery power efficiently 
  10. ^ Asif, Saad. 5G Mobile Communications: Concepts and Technologies. CRC Press. 2018: 128–134. ISBN 9780429881343. 
  11. ^ Colinge, Jean-Pierre; Greer, James C. Nanowire Transistors: Physics of Devices and Materials in One Dimension. Cambridge University Press. 2016: 2. ISBN 9781107052406. 
  12. ^ Isaacson, Walter. The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution. Simon and Schuster. 2014: 237–246. 
  13. ^ Inductee Details – Paul Baran. National Inventors Hall of Fame. [6 September 2017]. (原始内容存档于6 September 2017). 
  14. ^ Inductee Details – Donald Watts Davies. National Inventors Hall of Fame. [6 September 2017]. (原始内容存档于6 September 2017). 
  15. ^ Roberts, Larry; Marrill, Tom. Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers. Fall AFIPS Conference. October 1966 [2017-09-10]. (原始内容存档于2002-04-01). 
  16. ^ Chris Sutton. Internet Began 35 Years Ago at UCLA with First Message Ever Sent Between Two Computers. UCLA. (原始内容存档于March 8, 2008). 
  17. ^ Gillies, James; Cailliau, Robert. How the Web was Born: The Story of the World Wide Web. Oxford University Press. 2000: 25. ISBN 0192862073. 
  18. ^ C. Hempstead; W. Worthington. Encyclopedia of 20th-Century Technology. Routledge. 2005. 
  19. ^ Bennett, Richard. Designed for Change: End-to-End Arguments, Internet Innovation, and the Net Neutrality Debate (PDF). Information Technology and Innovation Foundation: 11. September 2009 [11 September 2017]. 
  20. ^ Cerf, Vinton; Dalal, Yogen; Sunshine, Carl (December 1974), RFC 675, Specification of Internet Transmission Control Protocol
  21. ^ Pelkey, James L. 6.9 – Metcalfe Joins the Systems Development Division of Xerox 1975-1978. Entrepreneurial Capitalism and Innovation: A History of Computer Communications, 1968-1988. 2007 [5 September 2019]. 
  22. ^ 22.0 22.1 Spurgeon, Charles E. Ethernet The Definitive Guide. O'Reilly & Associates. 2000. ISBN 1-56592-660-9. 
  23. ^ Introduction to Ethernet Technologies. www.wband.com. WideBand Products. [2018-04-09] (美国英语). 
  24. ^ Pelkey, James L. Yogen Dalal. Entrepreneurial Capitalism and Innovation: A History of Computer Communications, 1968-1988. 2007 [5 September 2019]. 
  25. ^ HIPPI 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2007-01-01.

来源编辑

书籍
  • Andrew S. Tanenbaum. 《计算机网络》(Computer Networks, ISBN 0-13-349945-6
  • William Stallings. 《数据与计算机通信》(DATA & COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS, 6th Ed., ISBN 7-04-010043-6

外部链接编辑