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百科全书,或科学、艺术和工艺详解词典

1751年版《百科全书》的扉页

百科全书,或科学、艺术和工艺详解词典》(法語:Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers),通称《百科全书》(Encyclopédie),是1751年至1772年间由一批法国启蒙思想家编撰的一部法语百科全书。共17卷正编,11卷图编,此后其他人多有补编,1780年再版时共有35卷[1]:48-49。《百科全书》以启蒙主义为目的,条目常常夹叙夹议、议论时政,造成有时知识的介绍被议论喧宾夺主,从百科全书的角度而言并不能算是一部理想的工具书[1]:48

全书由法国的印刷业主布雷顿策划[1]:47,1751年起由狄德罗主编,1759年起由让·勒朗·达朗贝尔共同主编。参加编纂的主要人员有孟德斯鸠魁奈杜尔哥伏尔泰卢梭布丰等不少法国启蒙运动时期的著名人物。他们被称为百科全书派Encyclopédiste)。

《百科全书》是启蒙时代思想的代表之作,尽管原计划是翻译1728年英国出版的《钱伯斯百科全书》,它却成为了是历史上第一部致力于科学、艺术的综合性百科全书。正如主编狄德罗所述,《百科全书》的目标是“改变人们的思维方式”。[2]1751年第1卷出版后,就遭到政府与教会的压力,导致有几卷不得不地下发行,最后10卷甚至改用假封面和倒填日期出版[1]:48

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引用
  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 金常政. 百科全书的故事. 北京: 北京图书馆出版社. 2005-03. ISBN 7501326231. 
  2. ^ Lynn Hunt; Christopher R. Martin; Barbara H. Rosenwein; R. Po-chia Hsia, Bonnie G. Smith. The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures, A Concise History, Volume II: Since 1340. Bedford/St. Martin's. 28 July 2006: 611 [31 January 2013]. ISBN 978-0-312-43946-0. 
来源
  • Blom, Philipp英语Philipp Blom, Enlightening the world: Encyclopédie, the book that changed the course of history, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, ISBN 1-4039-6895-0
  • Brewer, Daniel. The Discourse of Enlightenment in Eighteenth-century France: Diderot and the Art of Philosophizing. Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 1993.
  • Brewer, Daniel, "The Encyclopédie: Innovation and Legacy" in New Essays on Diderot, edited by James Fowler, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, ISBN 0-521-76956-6
  • Burke, Peter, A social history of knowledge: from Gutenberg to Diderot, Malden: Blackwell Publishers Inc., 2000, ISBN 0-7456-2485-5
  • Darnton, Robert. The Business of Enlightenment: A Publishing History of the Encyclopédie, 1775-1800. Cambridge: Belknap, 1979.
  • Hunt, Lynn英语Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures: A Concise History: Volume II: Since 1340, Second Edition, Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007, ISBN 0-312-43937-7
  • Kramnick, Isaac英语Isaac Kramnick, "Encyclopédie" in The Portable Enlightenment Reader, edited by Isaac Kramnick, Toronto: Penguin Books, 1995, ISBN 0-14-024566-9
  • Lough, John. The Encyclopédie. New York: D. McKay, 1971.
  • Magee, Bryan英语Bryan Magee, The Story of Philosophy, New York: DK Publishing, Inc., 1998, ISBN 0-7894-3511-X
  • O'Sullivan, Dan. Wikipedia: A New Community of Practice? Farnham, Surrey, 2009, ISBN 9780754674337.
  • Roche, Daniel. "Encyclopedias and the Diffusion of Knowledge." The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-century Political Thought. By Mark Goldie英语Mark Goldie and Robert Wokler. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2006. 172–94.
  • Spielvogel, Jackson J英语Jackson J. Spielvogel, Western Civilization, Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2011, ISBN 0-495-89733-7

拓展阅读编辑

  • d'Alembert, Jean Le RondPreliminary discourse to the Encyclopedia of Diderot, translated by Richard N. Schwab, 1995. ISBN 0-226-13476-8
  • Darnton, Robert. "The Encyclopédie wars of prerevolutionary France." American Historical Review 78.5 (1973): 1331-1352. online
  • Donato, Clorinda, and Robert M. Maniquis, eds. The Encyclopédie and the Age of Revolution. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1992. ISBN 0-8161-0527-8
  • Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, Editions Flammarion, 1993. ISBN 2-08-070426-5
  • Grimsley. Ronald. Jean d'Alembert (1963)
  • Hazard, Paul. European thought in the eighteenth century from Montesquieu to Lessing (1954). pp 199-224
  • Kafker, Frank A. and Serena L. Kafker. The Encyclopedists as individuals: a biographical dictionary of the authors of the Encyclopédie (1988) ISBN 0-7294-0368-8
  • Lough, John. Essays on the Encyclopédie of Diderot and d'Alembert Oxford UP, 1968.
  • Pannabecker, John R. Diderot, the Mechanical Arts, and the Encyclopédie, 1994. With bibliography.

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