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統一資源標誌符方案

计算机科学URI方案是統一資源標誌符 (URI)命名結構的第一級。所有的统一资源定位符是從模式名稱後跟兩個點構建的(“:”)構建的。對句法語義的具體一部分,在很大程度上,留給不同的技術規範英语Specification (technical standard)

由於大多數模式最初設計用於協議,因此它們通常被錯誤地稱為“協議”或“URI協議”。例如,超文本傳輸協定方案通常用於使用超文本傳輸協定協議指定網絡資源。現在,此模式中的URI用於其他應用程序,例如與協議無關的資源描述框架资源(请参阅資源描述框架方案法语RDF Schema)或XML的命名空間。

目录

通用的语法编辑

<方案名稱>:<等級部分>[吗? <查询>][#<片段>]

例子编辑

以下是URI的兩個示例及其不同的組件:

  foo://username:password@example.com:8042/over/there/index.dtb?type=animal;name=ferret#nose
  \ /   \________________/\_________/ \__/            \___/ \_/ \_____________________/ \__/
   |           |               |       |                |    |           |                |
   |          用戶            主機    端口              |    |          查詢             片段
   |    \_______________________________/ \_____________|____|/
  方案                  |                         |     |    |
   |                   域名                      路徑   |    |
   |                                                    |    |
   |             路徑                              可以解釋為文件名
   |   ___________|____________                              |
  / \ /                        \                             |
  urn:example:animal:ferrett:nose                  可以解釋為擴展名

在互聯網號碼分配局註冊的方案编辑

|- | about | 顯示產品信息 | IETF Draft | | 由Web瀏覽器使用,有時也用於提供交互式選項。 Opera電腦瀏覽器使用opera:

通常使用的非官方URI方案编辑

方案 目標 定義為 格式 備註
adiumxtra 直接安裝Adium插件。 Adium團隊 adiumxtra://www.adiumxtras.com/download/0000 0000標識特定插件。
aim 讓您控制美國在線即時通訊 美國在線 aim:<function>?<parameters> 功能包括goimaddbuddybuddyicon
apt 通過高级打包工具安裝軟件的實驗方法。 apt:<package name> 用於託管Debian軟件存儲庫的站點。
afp 允許訪問苹果归档协议共享 IETF Draft 通過 互联网协议套件: afp://[<user>@]<host>[:<port>][/[<path>]]

通過 AppleTalk: afp:/at/[<user>@]<host>[:<zone>][/]

aw英语Active Worlds 指向世界的鏈接Active Worlds Activeworlds Inc.英语Active Worlds aw://<worldserver host>:<worldserver port>/<worldname> 當用戶從Active Worlds世界打開網站時,通常會將其視為引用者。
bolo英语Bolo_(1987_video_game) 加入Bolo遊戲 bolo://<hostname>/ 通常由IRC或遊戲服務器傳輸。
callto 開始Skype通信 callto:<screenname>
callto:<phonenumber> [1]
Initialement apparu dans NetMeeting. Fonctionne avec les versions actuelles de Skype avec Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer et Safari

最初出現在NetMeeting中。 適用於 Firefox,Internet Explorer和Safari的當前Skype版本

chrome Utilisé par les interfaces construites avec XUL. Mozilla chrome://<package>/<section>/<path> (Ou <code><section></code> peut être "content", "skin" ou "locale") Fonctionne seulement dans les navigateurs basés sur Mozilla, tels que Firefox, SeaMonkey et Netscape.
coap Accède aux ressources par Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). IETF Draft coap://<host>[:<port>]/<path>[?<query>] Identifie les ressources CoAP et permet de localiser les resources.
content Accède à un fournisseur de contenu Android. Open Handset Alliance content://provider/<path> Effectue une requête sur un fournisseur de contenu Android.
cvs Lien vers un dépôt CVS. Concurrent Versions System cvs://<method:logindetails>@<repository>/<modulepath>;[date=date to retrieve | tag=tag to retrieve]
doi Digital object identifier, a digital identifier for any object of intellectual property. The International DOI Foundation doi:10.<publisher number>/<suffix>
Exemple : doi:10.1000/182
{{{2}}}
lang={{langname|{{{1}}}}}|lang-code={{{1}}}|1={{{2}}}|2={{{2}}}|d=|nocat=}} Resources available using the eDonkey2000 network eDonkey2000 ed2k://|file|<filename>|<size of file>|<hash of file>|/ ou
ed2k://|server|<host>|<port>|/
{{{2}}}
{{{2}}} web feed subscription feed:<absolute_uri> ou
feed://<hierarchical part>

exemples :
feed://example.com/rss.xml
feed:https://example.com/rss.xml

lang={{langname|{{{1}}}}}|lang-code={{{1}}}|1={{{2}}}|2={{{2}}}|d=|nocat=}} for a detailed overview of common implementations, supported software, and critics.
finger Querying user information using the Finger protocol IETF Draft finger://host[:port][/<request>]
fish Accessing another computer's files using the SSH protocol fish KDE kioslave fish://[<username>[:<password>]@]<hostname>[:<port>] lang={{langname|{{{1}}}}}|lang-code={{{1}}}|1={{{2}}}|2={{{2}}}|d=|nocat=}} for details about the protocol.
gg Starting chat with Gadu-Gadu user Gadu-Gadu gg:<userid>
gizmoproject Gizmo5 calling link. gizmoproject://call?id=<gizmo_id> {{{2}}}
gtalk Start a chat with a Google Talk user Google Talk gtalk:chat?jid=example@gmail.com {{{2}}}
iax2 Inter-Asterisk eXchange protocol version 2 IETF Draft iax2:[<username>@]<host>[:<port>][/<number>[?<context>]]

exemples :
iax2:[2001:db8::1]:4569/alice?friends
iax2:johnQ@example.com/12022561414

irc Connecting to an Internet Relay Chat server to join a channel. IETF Draft
Old IETF Draft
irc://<host>[:<port>]/[<channel>[?<password>]] Assuming the client knows a server associated with the name, "host" may optionally be an IRC network name.
ircs Secure equivalent of irc IETF Draft ircs://<host>[:<port>]/[<channel>[?<password>]] See irc
irc6 IPv6 equivalent of irc irc6://<host>[:<port>]/[<channel>[?<password>]] See irc
itms Used for connecting to the iTunes Music Store Apple Inc itms:
jar Compressed archive member Java API jar:<url>!/[<entry>] Works for any ZIP based file.
javascript Execute JavaScript code IETF Draft javascript:<javascript to execute> Works in any modern browser.
keyparc Keyparc encrypt/decrypt resource. lang={{langname|{{{1}}}}}|lang-code={{{1}}}|1={{{2}}}|2={{{2}}}|d=|nocat=}} keyparc://encrypt/<username>/<uri> ou

keyparc://decrypt/<username>/<uri>

lastfm Connecting to a radio stream from Last.fm. Last.fm lastfm://<radio_stream> ou lastfm://globaltags/<genre> ou
lastfm://user/<username>/<stuff>
ldaps Secure equivalent of ldap ldaps://[<host>[:<port>]][/<dn> [?[<attributes>][?[<scope>][?[<filter>][?<extensions>]]]]] Not an IETF standard, but commonly used in applications.
lang={{langname|{{{1}}}}}|lang-code={{{1}}}|1={{{2}}}|2={{{2}}}|d=|nocat=}} "magnet links" Magnet-URI Project magnet:?xt=urn:sha1:<hash of file>&dn=<display name>
(other parameters are also possible)
Used by various peer-to-peer clients, usually providing the hash of a file to be located on the network.
maps "map links" maps:q=<physical location> Some mobile web browsers will launch a dedicated mapping application.
mms Windows streaming media mms://<host>:<port>/<path> Used by Windows Media Player to stream audio and/or video.
msnim Adding a contact, or starting a conversation in Windows Live Messenger Windows Live Messenger Add a contact to the buddy list

msnim:add?contact=nada@nowhere.com
Start a conversation with a contact
msnim:chat?contact=nada@nowhere.com
Start a voice conversation with a contact
msnim:voice?contact=nada@nowhere.com
Start a video conversation with a contact
msnim:video?contact=nada@nowhere.com

{{{2}}}
mvn Access Apache Maven repository artifacts OPS4J mvn:org.ops4j.pax.web.bundles/service/0.2.0-SNAPSHOT
mvn:http://user:password@repository.ops4j.org/maven2!org.ops4j.pax.web.bundles/service/0.2.0
notes Open a Lotus Notes document or database Lotus Notes notes://<address> Used by IBM Lotus Notes to refer to documents and databases stored within the Lotus Notes system. When clicked in a browser on a computer with Lotus Notes client installed, Notes will open the document link as if a Notes DocLink were clicked within Notes.
psyc Used to identify or locate a person, group, place or a service and specify its ability to communicate PSYC psyc:[//<host>[:[<port>][<transport>]]/[<object-name>][#<channel-name>] {{{2}}}
paparazzi:http Used to launch and automatically take a screen shot using the application "Paparazzi" (Mac only) Derailer paparazzi:http:[//<host>[:[<port>][<transport>]]/ {{{2}}}
rmi Look up a Java object in an RMI registry. [[Sun Microsystems|Sun]] rmi://<host>[:<port>]/<object-name> {{{2}}}
rsync rsync rsync://<host>[:<port>]/<path>
secondlife Open the Map floater in Second Life application to teleport the resident to the location. Linden Lab secondlife://<region name>/<x position>/<y position>/<z position> {{{2}}}
sgn Social Graph Node Mapper Google exemple :

sgn://social-network.example.com/?ident=bob

{{{2}}}
skype Launching Skype call (official; see also callto:) Skype skype:<username|phonenumber>[?[add|call|chat|sendfile|userinfo]] {{{2}}}
ssh SSH connections (like telnet:) and IETF Draft ssh://[<user>[;fingerprint=<host-key fingerprint>]@]<host>[:<port>]
sftp SFTP file transfers (not be to confused with FTPS (FTP/SSL)) IETF Draft sftp://[<user>[;fingerprint=<host-key fingerprint>]@]<host>[:<port>]/<path>/<file>
smb Accessing SMB/CIFS shares IETF Draft smb://[<user>@]<host>[:<port>][/[<path>]][?<param1>=<value1>[;<param2>=<value2>]] ou
smb://[<user>@]<workgroup>[:<port>][/]
sms Interact with SMS capable devices for composing and sending messages. IETF draft sms:<phone number>?<action> Should be used as a subset to the tel: schema. [來源請求]
soldat Joining servers Soldat soldat://<host>:<port>/[password]

exemple :
soldat://127.0.0.1:23073/thatssecret!

{{{2}}}
steam Interact with Steam: install apps, purchase games, run gamesTemplate:Etc. Steam, Valve Corporation steam:<command line arguments> ou
steam://<action>/<id, addon, IP, hostname, etc.>
{{{2}}}
svn Provides a link to a Subversion (SVN) source control repository Subversion (software) svn[+ssh]://<logindetails>@<repository><:port>/<modulepath>
teamspeak Joining a server. TeamSpeak teamspeak://<server>[:<port>]/[?<parameter1>=<value1>[&<parameter2>=<value2>]] {{{2}}}
unreal Joining servers Unreal unreal://<server>[:<port>]/ Unreal legacy "protocol"
ut2004 Joining servers Unreal Tournament 2004 ut2004://<server>[:<port>][/<map>?<options>] {{{2}}}
ventrilo Joining a server. Ventrilo ventrilo://<server>[:<port>]/[?<parameter1>=<value1>[&<parameter2>=<value2>]] {{{2}}}
lang={{langname|{{{1}}}}}|lang-code={{{1}}}|1={{{2}}}|2={{{2}}}|d=|nocat=}} Shows a web page as code ‘in the raw’. Mozilla, Google Chrome view-source:<URI>

exemple :
view-source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/URI_scheme

{{{2}}}
webcal Subscribing to calendars in iCalendar format iCalendar webcal://<hierarchical part>

exemple :
webcal://example.com/calendar.ics

HTTP as a transport protocol is assumed.
See Webcal for details.
wtai Wireless Telephony Application Interface WAP Forum wtai://wp/mc/+18165551212 {{{2}}}
wyciwyg What You Cache Is What You Get WYCIWYG Mozilla wyciwyg://<URI> See WYCIWYG for details.
xfire Adding friends and servers, joining servers, changing status text. Xfire xfire:<function>[?<parameter1>=<value1>[&<parameter2>=<value2>]] {{{2}}}
xri eXtensible Resource Identifier (XRI) OASIS XRI Technical Committee xri://<authority>[/[<path>]][?<query>][#fragment] {{{2}}}
ymsgr Sending an instant message to a Yahoo! Contact. Yahoo! Messenger ymsgr:sendIM?<screenname>


参考文献编辑