维也纳学派

学派

维也纳学派(德語:Wiener Kreis),1920年代发展出来的一个自然科学和哲学的学派。

维也纳学派是发源于20世纪20年代奥地利首都维也纳的一个学术团体。其成员主要包括领袖人物石里克鲁道夫·卡尔纳普纽拉特赫伯特·费格尔英语Herbert Feigl汉恩伯格曼弗兰克韦斯曼英语Friedrich Waismann哥德尔,等等。他们多是当时欧洲大陆优秀的物理学家、数学家和逻辑学家。他们关注当时自然科学发展成果(如数学基础论、相对论量子力学),并尝试在此基础上去探讨哲学和科学方法论等问题。

受到19世纪以来德国实证主义传统影响,加上在维特根斯坦逻辑哲学论》思想启示下,维也纳学派提出了一系列有别传统的见解。大致来说,他们的(除哥德尔)中心主张有两点:一,拒绝形而上学,认为经验是知识唯一可靠来源;二,只有通过运用逻辑分析的方法,才可最终解决传统哲学问题。

20年代末以来,维也纳学派通过组织一系列国际会议与发行丛书,与欧美思想相近学者(如德国的柏林学派与波兰华沙学派)相联系,而逐渐发展成为声势浩大的逻辑实证主义[1]运动。然而,随着30年代中起纳粹在欧洲兴起,学派中的犹太的学者受到迫害,导致不少重要成员被迫逃亡海外。及至1933年汉恩病逝,1936年石里克遇刺身亡,维也纳学派最终走向解散的结局。尽管如此,逻辑实证主义思想却因此得在英美国家得到广泛传播,并促成了二战后分析哲学[2]成为英语世界的学术主流。

研究書目编辑

原始文献编辑

  • Carnap, Rudolf. "Überwindung der Metaphysik durch Logische Analyse der Sprache" in Erkenntnis, vol. 2, 1932 (English translation "The Elimination of Metaphysics Through Logical Analysis of Language" in Sarkar, Sahotra, ed., Logical empiricism at its peak: Schlick, Carnap, and Neurath, New York : Garland Pub., 1996, pp. 10–31)
  • Neurath, Otto and Carnap, Rudolf and Morris, Charles W. Foundations of the Unity of Sciences, vol. 1, Chicago : The University of Chicago Press, 1969.
  • Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung. Der Wiener Kreis, 1929. English translation The Scientific Conception of the World. The Vienna Circle in Sarkar, Sahotra, ed., The Emergence of Logical Empiricism: from 1900 to the Vienna Circle, New York : Garland Publishing, 1996, pp. 321–340
  • Stadler, Friedrich and Uebel, Thomas (eds.): Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung. Der Wiener Kreis. Hrsg. vom Verein Ernst Mach (1929). Reprint of the first edition. With translations into English, French, Spanish and Italian. Vienna: Springer, 2012.
  • Stöltzner, Michael and Uebel, Thomas (eds.). Wiener Kreis. Texte zur wissenschaftlichen Weltauffassung. Meiner, Hamburg, 2006, ISBN 3-7873-1811-9. (Anthology in German)

二次文献编辑

  • Arnswald, Ulrich, Stadler, Friedrich and Weibel, Peter (ed.): Der Wiener Kreis – Aktualität in Wissenschaft, Literatur, Architektur und Kunst. Wien: LIT Verlag 2019. ISBN 978-3-643-50937-6
  • Ayer, Alfred Jules. Language, Truth and Logic. London, Victor Gollancz, 1936.
  • Ayer, Alfred Jules. Logical Positivism. Glencoe, Ill: Free Press, 1959.
  • Barone, Francesco. Il neopositivismo logico. Roma Bari: Laterza, 1986.
  • Bergmann, Gustav. The Metaphysics of Logical Positivism. New York: Longmans Green, 1954.
  • Cirera, Ramon. Carnap and the Vienna Circle: Empiricism and Logical Syntax. Atlanta, GA: Rodopi, 1994.
  • Damböck, Christian. Nachwort (PDF). Damböck, Christian (编). Der Wiener Kreis – Ausgewählte Texte. Stuttgart: Reclam. 2013: 227–244 (德语). 
  • Frank, Philipp: Modern Science and its Philosophy. Cambridge, 1949.
  • Friedman, Michael, Reconsidering Logical Positivism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
  • Gadol, Eugene T. Rationality and Science: A Memorial Volume for Moritz Schlick in Celebration of the Centennial of his Birth. Wien: Springer, 1982.
  • Geymonat, Ludovico. La nuova filosofia della natura in Germania. Torino, 1934.
  • Giere, Ronald N. and Richardson, Alan W. Origins of Logical Empiricism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997.
  • Haller, Rudolf. Neopositivismus. Eine historische Einführung in die Philosophie des Wiener Kreises. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt, 1993, ISBN 3-534-06677-4. (German)
  • Holt, Jim. "Positive Thinking" (review of Karl Sigmund, Exact Thinking in Demented Times: The Vienna Circle and the Epic Quest for the Foundations of Science, Basic Books, 449 pp.), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIV, no. 20 (21 December 2017), pp. 74–76.
  • Kraft, Victor. The Vienna Circle: The Origin of Neo-positivism, a Chapter in the History of Recent Philosophy. New York: Greenwood Press, 1953.
  • Limbeck, Christoph and Stadler, Friedrich (eds.). The Vienna Circle. Texts and Pictures of an Exhibition. Münster-Berlin-London 2015. ISBN 978-3-643-90649-6
  • McGuinness, Brian. Wittgenstein and the Vienna Circle: Conversations Recorded by Friedrich Waismann. Trans. by Joachim Schulte and Brian McGuinness. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1979.
  • Parrini, Paolo; Salmon, Wesley C.; Salmon, Merrilee H. (ed.) Logical Empiricism – Historical and Contemporary Perspectives, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2003.
  • Reisch, George. How the Cold War Transformed Philosophy of Science : To the Icy Slopes of Logic. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
  • Rescher, Nicholas (ed.). The Heritage of Logical Positivism. University Press of America, 1985.
  • Richardson, Alan W. "The Scientific World Conception. Logical Positivism", in: T. Baldwin (Hg.), The Cambridge History of Philosophy, 1870–1945, 2003, 391–400.
  • Richardson, Alan W. and Uebel, Thomas (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Logical Empiricism. Cambridge, 2007.
  • Salmon, Wesley and Wolters, Gereon (ed.), Logic, Language, and the Structure of Scientific Theories: Proceedings of the Carnap-Reichenbach Centennial, University of Konstanz, 21–24 May 1991, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1994.
  • Sarkar, Sahotra. The Emergence of Logical Empiricism: From 1900 to the Vienna Circle. New York: Garland Publishing, 1996.
  • Sarkar, Sahotra. Logical Empiricism at its Peak: Schlick, Carnap, and Neurath. New York: Garland Pub., 1996.
  • Sarkar, Sahotra. Logical Empiricism and the Special Sciences: Reichenbach, Feigl, and Nagel. New York: Garland Pub., 1996.
  • Sarkar, Sahotra. Decline and Obsolescence of Logical Empiricism: Carnap vs. Quine and the Critics. New York: Garland Pub., 1996.
  • Sarkar, Sahotra. The Legacy of the Vienna Circle: Modern Reappraisals. New York: Garland Pub., 1996.
  • Spohn, Wolfgang (ed.), Erkenntnis Orientated: A Centennial Volume for Rudolf Carnap and Hans Reichenbach, Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991.
  • Stadler, Friedrich. The Vienna Circle. Studies in the Origins, Development, and Influence of Logical Empiricism. New York: Springer, 2001. – 2nd Edition: Dordrecht: Springer, 2015.
  • Stadler, Friedrich (ed.). The Vienna Circle and Logical Empiricism. Re-evaluation and Future Perspectives. Dordrecht – Boston London, Kluwer, 2003.
  • Uebel, Thomas. Vernunftkritik und Wissenschaft: Otto Neurath und der erste Wiener Kreis. Wien-New York 2000. (German)
  • Uebel, Thomas, "On the Austrian Roots of Logical Empiricism" in Logical Empiricism – Historical and contemporary Perspectives, ed. Paolo Parrini, Wesley C. Salmon, Merrilee H. Salmon, Pittsburgh : University of Pittsburgh Press, 2003, pp. 76–93.
  • 洪謙:《邏輯經驗主義論文集》(香港:三聯書店【香港】有限公司,1990)。
  • 韓林合編:《洪謙選集》(長春:吉林人民出版社,2005)。

外部链接编辑

注释编辑

  1. ^ Logical Positivism
  2. ^ Analytic Philosophy