羅克福青黴菌

羅克福青黴菌學名Penicillium roqueforti)又稱洛克福青黴菌藍酪黴菌娄地青霉,是青黴屬的一種腐生真菌,生長在土壤與腐殖質中,於1906年由美國真菌學家查爾斯·托姆英语Charles Thom發表描述[5]。羅克福青黴菌為用於發酵生產藍乾酪的真菌,例如其名稱由來的罗克福干酪[6]。本種過去包括兩個變種,即製造起司的P. roqueforti var. roqueforti與會合成展青黴素P. roqueforti var. carneum,1996年基於核糖體RNA序列差異而被分拆成三個物種:本種、酒青黴英语Penicillium paneumPenicillium carneum英语Penicillium carneum[7]。2014年本種的基因組完整定序[8]

羅克福青黴菌
斯蒂爾頓芝士上由羅克福青黴菌形成的藍綠色紋路
科学分类 编辑
界: 真菌界 Fungi
门: 子囊菌门 Ascomycota
纲: 散囊菌綱 Eurotiomycetes
目: 散囊菌目 Eurotiales
科: 毛刷囊菌科 Trichocomaceae
属: 青黴屬 Penicillium
种:
羅克福青黴菌 P. roqueforti
二名法
Penicillium roqueforti
Thom英语Charles Thom (1906)
異名[4]
  • Penicillium roqueforti var. weidemannii Westling (1911)[1]

  • Penicillium weidemannii (Westling) Biourge (1923)[2]
  • Penicillium gorgonzolae Weid. (1923)
  • Penicillium roqueforti var. viride Datt.-Rubbo (1938)[3]
  • Penicillium roqueforti var. punctatum S.Abe (1956)
  • Penicillium conservandi Novobr. (1974)

許多本種的菌株在特定生長條件下可產生若干真菌毒素[9][10][11],包括马兜铃烯英语Aristolochene與由其衍生的PR毒素英语PR toxin[12]异烟棒曲霉素C英语Roquefortine C[13][14]

參考文獻

编辑
  1. ^ Westling R. Über die grünen Spezies der Gattung Penicillium. Arkiv før Botanik. 1911, (1): 71 (德语). 
  2. ^ Biourge P. Les moissisures du groupe Penicillium Link. La Cellule. 1923, 33: 7–331 (see pp. 203–4) (法语). 
  3. ^ Dattilo-Rubbo S. The taxonomy of fungi of blue-veined cheese. Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 1938, 22 (1–2): 174–81. doi:10.1016/s0007-1536(38)80015-2. 
  4. ^ GSD Species Synonymy: Penicillium roqueforti Thom. Species Fungorum. CAB International. [27 May 2015]. (原始内容存档于10 March 2021). 
  5. ^ Thom C. Fungi in cheese ripening; Camembert and Roquefort. U.S.D.A. Bureau of Animal Industry Bulletin. 1909, 82: 1–39 (see p. 36). 
  6. ^ Kinsella JE, Hwang DH. Enzymes of Penicillium roqueforti involved in the biosynthesis of cheese flavour. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. November 1976, 8 (2): 191–228. PMID 21770. doi:10.1080/10408397609527222. 
  7. ^ Boysen M, Skouboe P, Frisvad J, Rossen L. Reclassification of the Penicillium roqueforti group into three species on the basis of molecular genetic and biochemical profiles. Microbiology. 1996, 142 (3): 541–9. PMID 8868429. doi:10.1099/13500872-142-3-541 . 
  8. ^ Cheeseman K, Ropars J, Renault P, et al. Multiple recent horizontal transfers of a large genomic region in cheese making fungi. Nature Communications. 2014, 5: 2876. Bibcode:2014NatCo...5.2876C. PMC 3896755 . PMID 24407037. doi:10.1038/ncomms3876. 
  9. ^ Möller, T.; Akerstrand, K.; Massoud, T. Toxin-producin species of Penicillium and the development of mycotoxins in must and homemade wine. Nat. Toxins. 1997, 5 (2): 86–9. PMID 9131595. doi:10.1002/(SICI)(1997)5:2<86::AID-NT6>3.0.CO;2-7. 
  10. ^ Finoli C, Vecchio A, Galli A, Dragoni I. Roquefortine C occurrence in blue cheese. Journal of Food Protection. February 2001, 64 (2): 246–51. PMID 11271775. doi:10.4315/0362-028x-64.2.246 . 
  11. ^ Erdogan A, Sert S. Mycotoxin-forming ability of two Penicillium roqueforti strains in blue moldy tulum cheese ripened at various temperatures. Journal of Food Protection. March 2004, 67 (3): 533–5. PMID 15035369. doi:10.4315/0362-028X-67.3.533 . 
  12. ^ Proctor RH, Hohn TM. Aristolochene synthase. Isolation, characterization, and bacterial expression of a sesquiterpenoid biosynthetic gene (Ari1) from Penicillium roqueforti. Journal of Biological Chemistry. February 1993, 268 (6): 4543–8 [3 December 2008]. PMID 8440737. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)53644-9 . (原始内容存档于25 September 2019). 
  13. ^ SCBT. Roquefortine - A potent neurotoxin produced most notably by Penicillium species. [17 May 2013]. (原始内容存档于16 March 2016). 
  14. ^ Penicillium roqueforti Final Risk Assessment. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 29 April 2015 [17 May 2013]. (原始内容存档于24 September 2015).