耶路撒冷圍城戰 (70年)

耶路撒冷圍城戰第一次猶太–羅馬戰爭期間的一場戰役,當時提圖斯率領下的羅馬帝國军队围攻耶路撒冷。经过五个月的围困后,羅馬帝國军队攻入耶路撒冷,並摧毀該城市以及第二圣殿[1][2][3]

70年4月,當時正值逾越節的前三天,羅馬帝國军队开始围攻耶路撒冷 [4][5]。在開始圍攻後的三周内,罗马军队就攻破了城市的最外圍的兩堵城墻,但但猶太人依然在第三堵城墻對抗羅馬帝國。 [4][6]

70年8月30日,[7]罗马军队攻入耶路撒冷并放火焚烧了第二圣殿[8] 猶太人繼續抵抗一個月,但最终整個耶路撒冷被佔領,城市被夷为平地。提图斯只留下了希律堡的三座塔楼。[9][10]罗马帝國當局為了慶祝攻佔耶路撒冷,在羅馬舉辦凯旋儀式,并修建两座凯旋门以示纪念。罗马帝國當局還向公眾展出从第二圣殿抢来的宝物。 [11]

战争结束后,羅馬帝國在耶路撒冷废墟上建立第十海峡军团的军营[12][13]以及罗马殖民地爱利亚加比多连。犹太人被禁止進入耶路撒冷。[14][15][16]这一系列的舉措通常被认为是巴爾科赫巴起義的導火索之一。 [17][18]

参考文献 编辑

  1. ^ Weksler-Bdolah, Shlomit. Aelia Capitolina – Jerusalem in the Roman period: in light of archaeological research. BRILL. 2019: 3. ISBN 978-90-04-41707-6. OCLC 1170143447. The historical description is consistent with the archeological finds. Collapses of massive stones from the walls of the Temple Mount were exposed lying over the Herodian street running along the Western Wall of the Temple Mount. The residential buildings of the Ophel and the Upper City were destroyed by great fire. The large urban drainage channel and the Pool of Siloam in the Lower City silted up and ceased to function, and in many places the city walls collapsed. [...] Following the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 CE, a new era began in the city's history. The Herodian city was destroyed and a military camp of the Tenth Roman Legion established on part of the ruins. In 约130 CE, the Roman emperor Hadrian founded a new city in place of Herodian Jerusalem next to the military camp. He honored the city with the status of a colony and named it Aelia Capitolina and possibly also forbidding Jews from entering its boundaries 
  2. ^ Westwood, Ursula. A History of the Jewish War, AD 66–74. Journal of Jewish Studies. 2017-04-01, 68 (1): 189–193. ISSN 0022-2097. doi:10.18647/3311/jjs-2017. 
  3. ^ Ben-Ami, Doron; Tchekhanovets, Yana. The Lower City of Jerusalem on the Eve of Its Destruction, 70 CE: A View From Hanyon Givati. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 2011, 364: 61–85. ISSN 0003-097X. S2CID 164199980. doi:10.5615/bullamerschoorie.364.0061. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Schäfer, Peter. The History of the Jews in the Greco-Roman World: The Jews of Palestine from Alexander the Great to the Arab. Conquest Routledge. 2003: 129–130. ISBN 978-1-134-40317-2. 
  5. ^ 猶太戰史 Book V, sect. 99 (Ch. 3, paragraph 1 in Whiston's translation); dates given are approximations since the correspondence between the calendar Josephus used and modern calendars is uncertain.
  6. ^ Si Shepperd, The Jewish Revolt AD 66–74, (Osprey Publishing), p. 62.
  7. ^ Bunson, Matthew. A Dictionary of the Roman Empire. Oxford University Press. 1995: 212. ISBN 978-0-19-510233-8 (English). 
  8. ^ The destruction of both the 所罗门圣殿 and Second Temples is still mourned annually during the Jewish fast of 圣殿被毁日.
  9. ^ Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period英语Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period, pp. 51–52.
  10. ^ Goodman, Martin. Rome and Jerusalem: The Clash of Ancient Civilizations. Penguin. 2008: 25. ISBN 978-0-14-029127-8. OCLC 1016414322. The capitulation of the rest of Jerusalem was rapid. Those parts of the lower city already under Roman control were deliberately set on fire. The erection of new towers to break down the walls of the upper city was completed on 7 Elul (in mid-August), and the troops forced their way in. By 8 Elul the whole city was in Roman hands – and in ruins. In recompense for the ferocious fighting they had been required to endure, the soldiers were given free rein to loot and kill, until eventually Titus ordered that the city be razed to the ground, 'leaving only the loftiest of the towers, Phasael, Hippicus and Mariamme, and the portion of the wall enclosing the city on the west: the latter as an encampment for the garrison that was to remain, and the towers to indicate to posterity the nature of the city and of the strong defences which had yet yielded to Roman prowess. All the rest of the wall encompassing the city was so completely levelled to the ground as to leave future visitors to the spot no ground for believing that it had ever been inhabited.' 
  11. ^ Maclean Rogers, Guy. For the Freedom of Zion: The Great Revolt of Jews against Romans, 66–74 CE. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. 2021: 3–5. ISBN 978-0-300-26256-8. OCLC 1294393934. 
  12. ^ Weksler-Bdolah, Shlomit, The Camp of the Legion X Fretensis, Aelia Capitolina – Jerusalem in the Roman Period (Brill), 2019-12-09: 19–50 [2022-05-19], ISBN 978-90-04-41707-6, doi:10.1163/9789004417076_003, After the destruction of the Herodian city of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 CE, a military camp of the Tenth Roman Legion was established on part of the ruins to guard the former center of the revolt. This is clearly stated by Josephus (Jos. BJ, 7:1–5, 17; Vita, 422); it can be understood from the text of a diploma of 93 CE: “(veterani) qui militaverunt Hierosolymnis in legione X Fretense”, and it is also clear from epigraphic finds from the town. A bulk of military small finds recovered from several sites around the Old City indicates the presence of the XFretensis in Jerusalem 
  13. ^ Geva, Hillel. The Camp of the Tenth Legion in Jerusalem: An Archaeological Reconsideration. Israel Exploration Journal. 1984, 34 (4): 239–254. ISSN 0021-2059. JSTOR 27925952. 
  14. ^ Peter Schäfer. The Bar Kokhba war reconsidered: new perspectives on the second Jewish revolt against Rome. Mohr Siebeck. 2003: 36– [4 December 2011]. ISBN 978-3-16-148076-8. 
  15. ^ Lehmann, Clayton Miles. Palestine: History. The On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. The University of South Dakota. 22 February 2007 [18 April 2007]. (原始内容存档于10 March 2008). 
  16. ^ Cohen, Shaye J. D. Hershel Shanks , 编. Judaism to Mishnah: 135–220 AD. Washington DC: Biblical Archaeology Society. 1996: 196. 
  17. ^ Shlomit Weksler-Bdolah. Aelia Capitolina – Jerusalem in the Roman Period: In Light of Archaeological Research. Brill. 2019: 54–58. ISBN 978-90-04-41707-6. 
  18. ^ Jacobson, David. The Enigma of the Name Īliyā (= Aelia) for Jerusalem in Early Islam. Revision 4. [December 23, 2020].