- ^ Bachrach, Bernard S. Merovingian Military Organization, 481-751. U of Minnesota Press. 1972: 3 [2019-05-17]. ISBN 9780816657001. （原始内容存档于2020-05-17） （英语）.
By 481 the two peoples competing for predominance in this territory were the Visigoths in southwestern Gaul and the Burgundians in the southeast. Among the lesser groups contending for power were the Armorici (a loose confederation of Gallo-Romans, Britons, Alans, and erstwhile imperial soldiers with their families), who lived in the area between the Seine and the Loire. To the north, between the Seine and the Somme, was Syagrius's Roman kingdom of Soissons and to the east along the upper Rhine were settlements of Alamans. North of these was a small band of Thuringians. The remainder of the Rhineland and the area to the west were ruled by Frankish reguli or chieftains, who, with their warbands, were settled around Tournai, Cambrai, Cologne, and the other cities of the region.
- ^ Calculated with Google Maps according to the referenced map.
- ^ European parts of the Roman Empire (2500000 km2) had around 18.3 million people in 350 AD. Thus (50000*18300000/2500000)=360000
- ^ Russell (1958)