西班牙征服尤卡坦

西班牙征服尤卡坦西班牙帝国尤卡坦半岛进行的一系列殖民战争,其中最主要的敌人是玛雅文明西班牙玛雅地区的征服持续了较长的时间。

征服之前的早期接触编辑

玛雅人最早直接接触到西班牙人是在1511年,一艘西班牙船只遇海难,十来个西班牙人漂流到了尤卡坦半岛东部,被当地玛雅王国发现。其中一些人被当场抓去献祭了。最后剩下两个人活下来,一个是格罗尼莫·德阿奎拉,一个是冈萨罗·格雷罗。前者在1519年科特斯进入尤卡坦时当了西班牙人翻译,后者则有幸成为尤卡坦东部切图马尔王国的将军,并娶了玛雅人为妻,生下了墨西哥史上最早的印欧混血人(所以他现在还被纪念着)。

1517年的时候弗朗西斯科·赫尔南德斯·德科尔多巴从古巴出发航行到尤卡坦,发现海岸上有一些石头垒砌的城堡。他们一开始跟这些玛雅城邦进行了交易,后来还是发生了冲突,他们被赶走了。不过他们向外面的西班牙人报道了尤卡坦的情况,这也引起了后来的科特斯远征。

伴随西班牙人而来的,还有旧大陆的一系列烈性传染疾病,例如天花黄热病等等。根据现代的估测,在16世纪20至30年代,整个玛雅地区由于传染病造成的的人口损失高达75%至90%。这在相当大的程度上削弱了玛雅文明的经济以及战斗力。

征服过程编辑

1519年科特斯在尤卡坦登陆,不过没有什么大动作,而是径直去了阿兹特克并在两年后彻底击败阿兹特克帝国。直到1527年科特斯才把注意力转移到尤卡坦,派手下弗朗西斯科·蒙特霍英语Francisco de Montejo去征服那里。这一次玛雅人表面上同意臣服,不过用计打败了西班牙军队。

1531年蒙特霍又去了,这一回采用分化瓦解的方式,先设法跟玛雅海岸城市坎佩切结盟,然后派出军队深入腹地。玛雅人再施旧计,首先表示臣服,然后各地都进行大规模反抗,于1535年成功将西班牙势力逐出尤卡坦。这一次反抗中玛雅切图马尔王国的西班牙人将军格雷罗很有可能参与了战斗并牺牲,因为有记载说西班牙人发现守城的死者中有一个白人。

1540年,老蒙特霍把军权交给自己的儿子。这年小蒙特霍带了大军进入尤卡坦,征服了西尤卡坦的盟主休玛雅,并在1542年在现在的梅里达市设置了首府。休玛雅的国王皈依了天主教,成为了西班牙的傀儡。小蒙特霍利用强大的休玛雅军队向尤卡坦东部推进,用了4年时间基本上占领了整个玛雅地区,在1546年除了现危地马拉北部的密林地区外,整个尤卡坦均掌握在了西班牙人手中。

占领佩腾湖编辑

危地马拉北部的热带丛林中有一个佩腾湖,湖中有一个岛,岛上的城市塔亚萨尔是当时伊察玛雅的首都。西班牙人其实一直知道这个国家的存在(科特斯在1525年去洪都拉斯的途中经过这里,当时伊察国王表示了臣服),但是由于地理及气候等等因素一直没有去征服她,只是偶尔派一些传教士去试图传教,虽然都没有成功,不过也留下了一些记载,让我们了解了这个国家的情况。它保留着古老的信仰(不过加入了少许新的元素,比如科特斯骑的白马也成了一个神灵),有大量抄本流传,传统的玛雅文化在这里得到了旺盛的生命力。

1622年,尤卡坦总督派出一小支部队去骚扰伊察王国,不幸全军覆没。1624年总督又派了一支军队,不过仍然惨败。于是总督觉得还是用兵去镇守已经控制的地区更划算,因为这些地区的玛雅人一直未停止过反抗。

1695年,西班牙方济各会派了三名传教士和四个皈依天主教的玛雅歌手前往伊察王国。他们得到了款待,也收获了一些信徒。不过伊察国王本人拒绝加入天主教;他说等时机成熟的时候自己会考虑的,不过现在不是时间。于是第二年伊察王国就遭到了西班牙人和他们的玛雅同盟的进攻。这一次伊察王国仍旧成功地进行了抵抗。

梅里达的西班牙指挥官这才意识到伊察王国不是个轻易就能打败的对手,于是在1697年决定派出由235名西班牙士兵加上数万名玛雅军队组成的大军,浩浩荡荡进入雨林。他们拥有一个长距离的补给线,并在佩腾湖畔建立了一个要塞。最终在同年3月13日,西班牙人攻陷伊察玛雅首都塔亚萨尔。

西班牙人在塔亚萨尔焚烧了玛雅图书馆,花了整整一天时间砸毁了玛雅人神庙中的所有偶像。这样古玛雅文明的最后一个据点被毁灭,西班牙势力成功占领整个尤卡坦。

相关条目编辑

参考文献编辑

Andrews, Anthony P. The Political Geography of the Sixteenth Century Yucatan Maya: Comments and Revisions. Journal of Anthropological Research (Albuquerque, New Mexico, US: University of New Mexico). Winter 1984, 40 (4): 589–596. JSTOR 3629799.  Template:Subscription only
Athena Review. The Spanish Conquest of Yucatán (1526–46). Athena Review. 1999a, 2 (1) [2006-07-25]. (原始内容存档于2006-06-28). 
Athena Review. The Valdivia Shipwreck (1511). Athena Review. 1999b, 2 (1) [2006-07-25]. (原始内容存档于2006-07-13). 
Caso Barrera, Laura. Caminos en la selva: migración, comercio y resistencia: Mayas yucatecos e itzaes, siglos XVII–XIX [Roads in the Forest: Migration, Commerce and Resistance: Yucatec and Itza Maya, 17th–19th Centuries]. Mexico City, Mexico: El Colegio de México, Fondo de Cultura Económica. 2002 [2019-01-27]. ISBN 978-968-16-6714-6. OCLC 835645038. (原始内容存档于2020-08-19) (西班牙语). 
Cervantes de Salazar, Francisco. Crónica de la Nueva España. readme.it. n.d. [ca. 1560] [2006-07-26]. (原始内容存档于2015-09-24) (西班牙语). 
Cecil, Leslie; Prudence M. Rice; Don S. Rice. J.P. Laporte; H.L. Escobedo , 编. Los estilos tecnológicos de la cerámica Postclásica con engobe de la región de los lagos de Petén [The Technological Styles of Postclassic Slipped Ceramics in the Petén Lakes Region] (PDF). Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala (Guatemala City, Guatemala: Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología). 1999,. XII (1998): 788–795 [2012-11-26]. OCLC 42674202. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2013-11-02) (西班牙语). 
Chamberlain, Robert Stoner. The Conquest and Colonization of Yucatan, 1517–1550. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution. 1948 [2019-01-27]. OCLC 459181680. (原始内容存档于2016-04-25). 
Chuchiak IV, John F. "Fide, Non Armis": Franciscan Reducciónes and the Maya Mission Experience on the Colonial Frontier of Yucatán, 1602–1640. John F. Schwaller (编). Francis in the Americas: Essays on the Franciscan Family in North and South America (PDF). Berkeley, California, US: Academy of American Franciscan History英语Academy of American Franciscan History. 2005: 119–142 [2019-01-27]. ISBN 0-88382-306-3. OCLC 61229653. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2013-10-15). 
Clendinnen, Inga. Ambivalent Conquests: Maya and Spaniard in Yucatan, 1517–1570 2nd. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 2003 [1988] [2019-01-27]. ISBN 0-521-52731-7. OCLC 50868309. (原始内容存档于2020-06-14). 
Coe, Michael D. The Maya 4th edition (revised). London; New York: Thames & Hudson. 1987. ISBN 0-500-27455-X. OCLC 15895415. 
Coe, Michael D. The Maya. Ancient Peoples and Places 6th edition, fully revised and expanded. London, UK and New York, US: Thames & Hudson英语Thames & Hudson. 1999. ISBN 0-500-28066-5. OCLC 59432778. 
de Dios González, Juan. Gonzalo Guerrero, primer mexicano por voluntad propia [Gonzalo Guerrero, First Mexican by his Own Free Will] (PDF). Inventio: la génesis de la cultura universitaria en Morelos (Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos). 2008, (4): 23–26 [2013-12-17]. OCLC 613144193. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2020-04-16) (西班牙语). 
Díaz del Castillo, Bernal. The Conquest of New Spain. Penguin Classics. J. M. Cohen英语J. M. Cohen (trans.) 6th printing (1973). Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books. 1963 [1632]. ISBN 0-14-044123-9. OCLC 162351797. 
Estrada-Belli, Francisco. The First Maya Civilization: Ritual and Power Before the Classic Period. Abingdon, Oxfordshire, UK and New York, US: Routledge. 2011. ISBN 978-0-415-42994-8. 
Feldman, Lawrence H. Motagua Colonial. Raleigh, North Carolina, US: Boson Books英语Boson Books. 1998 [2019-01-27]. ISBN 1-886420-51-3. OCLC 82561350. (原始内容存档于2016-05-04). 
Feldman, Lawrence H. Lost Shores, Forgotten Peoples: Spanish Explorations of the South East Maya Lowlands. Durham, North Carolina, US: Duke University Press英语Duke University Press. 2000. ISBN 0-8223-2624-8. OCLC 254438823. 
Fialko Coxemans, Vilma. Domingo Fajardo: vicario y defensor de indios en Petén. 1795–1828. [Domingo Fajardo: Vicar and Defender of Indians in Petén] (PDF). Mayab (Madrid, Spain: Sociedad Española de Estudios Mayas). 2003, (16): 72–78 [2012-12-06]. ISSN 1130-6157. OCLC 14209890 (西班牙语). 
Gómez Martín, Jorge Angel. El Descubrimiento del Yucatán (PDF). Revista de Estudios Colombinos (Tordesillas, Valladolid, Spain: Seminario Iberoamericano de Descubrimientos y Cartografía). June 2013, (9): 53–60 [2013-12-17]. ISSN 1699-3926. OCLC 436472699. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2019-12-12) (西班牙语). 
Hernández, Christine; Anthony P. Andrews; Gabrielle Vail. Introduction. Gabrielle Vail; Christine L. Hernández (编). Astronomers, Scribes, and Priests: Intellectual Interchange Between the Northern Maya Lowlands and Highland Mexico in the Late Postclassic Period. Dumbarton Oaks Pre-Columbian symposia and colloquia. Washington, D.C, US: Harvard University Press. 2010: 17–36 [2019-01-27]. ISBN 9780884023463. OCLC 845573515. (原始内容存档于2020-08-19). 
Houwald, Götz von. Mapa y Descripción de la Montaña del Petén e Ytzá. Interpretación de un documento de los años un poco después de la conquista de Tayasal [Map and Description of the Jungle of Petén and Itza. Interpretation of a Document from the Years Soon After the Conquest of Tayasal] (PDF). Indiana (Berlin, Germany: Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut英语Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut). 1984, (9) [2012-12-03]. ISSN 0341-8642. OCLC 2452883. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2015-01-28) (西班牙语). 
INAH. Zona Arqueológica El Meco. Mexico City, Mexico: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH) and Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes (CONACULTA). 2010 [2013-12-07]. (原始内容存档于2013-08-23) (西班牙语). 
Guatemala (Map) 3rd. 1:500000. International Travel Maps. Richmond, British Columbia, Canada: ITMB Publishing. 1998. ISBN 0-921463-64-2. OCLC 421536238. 
México South East (Map) 2nd. 1:1000000. International Travel Maps. Richmond, British Columbia, Canada: ITMB Publishing. 2000. ISBN 0-921463-22-7. OCLC 46660694. 
Jones, Grant D. The Conquest of the Last Maya Kingdom. Stanford, California, US: Stanford University Press. 1998 [2019-01-27]. ISBN 978-0-8047-3522-3. (原始内容存档于2020-06-27). 
Jones, Grant D. The Lowland Maya, from the Conquest to the Present. Richard E.W. Adams; Murdo J. Macleod (编). The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas, Vol. II: Mesoamerica, part 2. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 2000: 346–391. ISBN 0-521-65204-9. OCLC 33359444. 
Jones, Grant D. The Kowoj in Ethnohistorical Perspective. Prudence M. Rice; Don S. Rice (编). The Kowoj: Identity, Migration, and Geopolitics in Late Postclassic Petén, Guatemala. Boulder, Colorado, US: University Press of Colorado. 2009: 55–69. ISBN 978-0-87081-930-8. OCLC 225875268. 
Lovell, W. George. Conquest and Survival in Colonial Guatemala: A Historical Geography of the Cuchumatán Highlands, 1500–1821 3rd. Montreal, Canada: McGill-Queen's University Press英语McGill-Queen's University Press. 2005 [2019-01-27]. ISBN 0-7735-2741-9. OCLC 58051691. (原始内容存档于2020-08-30). 
Means, Philip Ainsworth. History of the Spanish Conquest of Yucatan and of the Itzas. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University VII. Cambridge, Massachusetts, US: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology英语Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. 1917. OCLC 681599. 
Perramon, Francesc Ligorred. Los primeros contactos lingüísticos de los españoles en Yucatán. Miguel Rivera; Andrés Ciudad (编). Los mayas de los tiempos tardíos (PDF). Madrid, Spain: Sociedad Española de Estudios Mayas. 1986: 241–252 [2019-01-27]. ISBN 9788439871200. OCLC 16268597. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2019-04-12) (西班牙语). 
Pohl, John; Hook, Adam. The Conquistador 1492–1550. Warrior 40. Oxford, UK and New York, US: Osprey Publishing. 2008 [2001]. ISBN 978-1-84176-175-6. OCLC 47726663. 
Pugh, Timothy W. Residential and Domestic Contexts at Zacpetén. Prudence M. Rice; Don S. Rice (编). The Kowoj: Identity, Migration, and Geopolitics in Late Postclassic Petén, Guatemala. Boulder, Colorado, US: University Press of Colorado. 2009: 141–191. ISBN 978-0-87081-930-8. OCLC 225875268. 
Quezada, Sergio. La colonización de los mayas peninsulares [The Colonisation of the Peninsula Maya] (PDF). Biblioteca Básica de Yucatán 18. Merida, Yucatan, Mexico: Secretaría de Educación del Gobierno del Estado de Yucatán. 2011 [2013-01-20]. ISBN 978-607-7824-27-5. OCLC 796677890. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2013-11-04) (西班牙语). 
Rice, Prudence M.; Don S. Rice. Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Maya Political Geography. Susan Kepecs; Rani T. Alexander (编). The Postclassic to Spanish-Era Transition in Mesoamerica: Archaeological Perspectives. Albuquerque, New Mexico, US: University of New Mexico Press. 2005. ISBN 9780826337399. OCLC 60550555.  外部链接存在于|chapter= (帮助)
Rice, Prudence M. The Archaeology of the Kowoj: Settlement and Architecture at Zacpetén. Prudence M. Rice; Don S. Rice (编). The Kowoj: Identity, Migration, and Geopolitics in Late Postclassic Petén, Guatemala. Boulder, Colorado, US: University Press of Colorado. 2009: 81–83. ISBN 978-0-87081-930-8. OCLC 225875268. 
Rice, Prudence M.; Don S. Rice. Introduction to the Kowoj and their Petén Neighbors. Prudence M. Rice; Don S. Rice (编). The Kowoj: Identity, Migration, and Geopolitics in Late Postclassic Petén, Guatemala. Boulder, Colorado, US: University Press of Colorado. 2009: 3–15. ISBN 978-0-87081-930-8. OCLC 225875268. 
Rice, Prudence M. Who were the Kowoj?. Prudence M. Rice; Don S. Rice (编). The Kowoj: Identity, Migration, and Geopolitics in Late Postclassic Petén, Guatemala. Boulder, Colorado, US: University Press of Colorado. 2009: 17–19. ISBN 978-0-87081-930-8. OCLC 225875268. 
Rice, Prudence M.; Don S. Rice; Timothy W. Pugh; Rómulo Sánchez Polo. Defensive architecture and the context of warfare at Zacpetén. Prudence M. Rice; Don S. Rice (编). The Kowoj: identity, migration, and geopolitics in late postclassic Petén, Guatemala. Boulder, Colorado, US: University Press of Colorado英语University Press of Colorado. 2009: 123–140. ISBN 978-0-87081-930-8. OCLC 225875268. 
Romero, Rolando J. Texts, Pre-Texts, Con-Texts: Gonzalo Guerrero in the Chronicles of Indies (PDF). 1992 [2006-07-26]. (原始内容 (pdf)存档于2009-03-06). 
Rugeley, Terry L. Yucatan's Maya Peasantry and the Origins of the Caste War. Austin: University of Texas Press英语University of Texas Press. 1996. ISBN 0-292-77078-2. 
Sharer, Robert J.; Loa P. Traxler. The Ancient Maya 6th (fully revised). Stanford, California, US: Stanford University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-8047-4817-9. OCLC 57577446. 
Smith, Michael E. The Aztecs 2nd. Malden, Massachusetts, US and Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing英语Blackwell Publishing. 2003 [1996]. ISBN 978-0-631-23016-8. OCLC 59452395. 
Thompson, J. Eric S. The Maya Central Area at the Spanish Conquest and Later: A Problem in Demography. Proceedings of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland). 1966, (1966): 23–37. JSTOR 3031712.  Template:Subscription only
Townsend, Richard F. The Aztecs. London, UK: Thames and Hudson. 1995 [1992]. ISBN 0-500-27720-6. OCLC 27825022. 
Vayhinger-Scheer, Temis. Kanek': El Último Rey Maya Itzaj [Kanek': The Last Itza Maya King]. Nikolai Grube (编). Los Mayas: Una Civilización Milenaria [The Maya: An Ancient Civilization]. Potsdam, Germany: Tandem Verlag英语Tandem Verlag. 2011: 382–383 [2006]. ISBN 978-3-8331-6293-0. OCLC 828120761 (西班牙语). 
Webster, David L. The Fall of the Ancient Maya: Solving the Mystery of the Maya Collapse. London, UK: Thames & Hudson. 2002. ISBN 0-500-05113-5. OCLC 48753878. 
White, D. A.; C. S. Hood. Vegetation Patterns and Environmental Gradients in Tropical Dry Forests of the Northern Yucatan Peninsula. Journal of Vegetation Science (Uppsala, Sweden: Opulus Press). April 2004, 15 (2): 151–160. ISSN 1654-1103. JSTOR 3236749. OCLC 50781866. doi:10.1111/j.1654-1103.2004.tb02250.x.  Template:Subscription only
Wise, Terence; McBride, Angus. The Conquistadores. Men-at-Arms 101. Oxford, UK and New York, US: Osprey Publishing. 2008 [1980]. ISBN 978-0-85045-357-7. OCLC 12782941.