- ^ Luis Fraga; John A. Garcia. Latino Lives in America: Making It Home. Temple University Press. 2010: 145. ISBN 978-1-4399-0050-5.
- ^ Nancy L. Fisher. Cultural and Ethnic Diversity: A Guide for Genetics Professionals. Johns Hopkins University Press. 1996: 19. ISBN 978-0-8018-5346-3.
- ^ Robert H. Holden; Rina Villars. Contemporary Latin America: 1970 to the Present. John Wiley & Sons. 2012: 18. ISBN 978-1-118-27487-3.
- ^ 49 CFR Part 26. [2012-10-22].
'Hispanic Americans,' which includes persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin, regardless of race;
- ^ US Small Business Administration 8(a) Program Standard Operating Procedure (PDF). [2012-10-22]. （原始内容 (PDF)存档于2006-09-25）.
SBA has defined 'Hispanic American' as an individual whose ancestry and culture are rooted in South America, Central America, Mexico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, or the Iberian Peninsula, including Spain and Portugal.
- ^ Humes, Karen R.; Jones, Nicholas A.; Ramirez, Roberto R. Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010 (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. [2011-03-28].
"Hispanic or Latino" refers to a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin regardless of race.
- ^ American FactFinder Help: Hispanic or Latino origin. United States Census Bureau. [2008-10-05]. （原始内容存档于2010-02-27）.
For Census 2000, American Community Survey: People who identify with the terms "Hispanic" or "Latino" are those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the Census 2000 or ACS questionnaire - "Mexican," "Puerto Rican," or "Cuban" - as well as those who indicate that they are "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino." Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any "race".
1990 Census of Population and Housing: A self-designated classification for people whose origins are from Spain, the Spanish speaking countries of Central or South America, the Caribbean, or those identifying themselves generally as Spanish, Spanish-American, etc. Origin can be viewed as ancestry, nationality, or country of birth of the person or person's parents or ancestors prior to their arrival in the United States.
- ^ Office of Management and Budget. Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. Federal Register Notice October 30, 1997. [2012-06-01].
- ^ B03001. Hispanic or Latino origin by specific origin. 2009 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. [2010-10-17].
- ^ Carlos Dejud. The Relationship Among Ethnic Identity, Psychological Well-being, Academic Achievement, and Intergroup Competence of School-age Hispanic/Latino Youth. ProQuest. 2007: 21. ISBN 978-0-549-29853-3.
- ^ Timothy Ready. Latino Immigrant Youth: Passages from Adolescence to Adulthood. Taylor & Francis. 1991: 14. ISBN 978-0-8153-0057-1.
- ^ Latino: People with roots in the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking Americas. This broader term, mostly used in the United States, is sometimes used as a replacement for Hispanic.
- ^ Defining "Hispanic" as meaning those with Spanish speaking roots in the Americas and "Latino" as meaning those with both Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking roots in Latin America. 互联网档案馆的存檔，存档日期2008-06-21.
- ^ "'Latino' . . . 'is more inclusive and descriptive'" than Hispanic. "'Latino' is short for 'latinoamericano,' which of course means Latin American in Spanish. Like its English counterpart, the term 'latinoamericano' strictly refers to the people who come from the territory in the Americas colonized by Latin nations, such as Portugal, Spain, and France, whose languages are derived from Latin. People from Brazil, Mexico, and even Haiti are thus all 'latinoamericanos.' Individuals who are decendants of the former British or Dutch colonies are excluded. . . . Finally, 'hispanoamericanos' are persons from the former colonies of Spain in the 'New World.' The expression 'Hispanic' probably derives from 'hispanoamericanos.'" Angel R. Oquendo, Re-Imagining the Latino/a Race, 12 Harvard BlackLetter L.J. 93, 96 -97 (1995)
- ^ "[T]he term 'Latino' . . . is more inclusive and descriptive than the term 'Hispanic.'" Deborah A. Ramirez, Excluded Voices: The Disenfranchisement of Ethnic Groups From Jury Service, 1993 Wis. L. Rev. 761, 806 (1993).
- ^ [[Category:自2019年9月带有失效链接的条目]].
- ^ Anderson, Kevin. The complexity of race in New Mexico. The Guardian (London). 2008-10-18.
- ^ 失效連結] 互联网档案馆的存檔，存档日期2013-10-24.
- ^ Herald Style Guide. [2012-04-06].
- ^ Newsroom 101: Recent Changes to AP Style. Newsroom 101. [2012-04-06]. （原始内容存档于April 18, 2012）.
- ^ Most Children Younger Than Age 1 are Minorities, Census Bureau Reports. MAY 17, 2012 [2014-05-04] （英语）.
- ^ Agence France-Presse. U.S. now has most Spanish speakers outside Mexico. June 15, 2013 [2014-05-04] （英语）.
- De la Garza, Rodolfo O.; Desipio, Louis. Ethnic Ironies: Latino Politics in the 1992 Elections. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. 1996.
- Maura, Juan Francisco. Caballeros y rufianes andantes en la costa atlántica de los Estados Unidos: Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón y Alvar Núñez Cabeza. Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispánicos. 2011, 35 (2): 305–328.
- Maura, Juan Francisco. Nuevas aportaciones al estudio de la toponimia ibérica en la América Septentrional en el siglo XVI. Bulletin of Spanish Studies. 2009, 86 (5): 577–603. doi:10.1080/14753820902969345.
- Maura, Juan Francisco. Sobre el origen hispánico del nombre ‘Canadá’ (PDF). Lemir: Revista de literatura medieval y del Renacimiento. 2016, (20): 17–52.
- Montalban-Anderssen, Romero Anton. What is a Hispanic? Legal Definition vs. Racist Definition. andrew.cmu.edu. 1996.
- Price, Marie D.; Cooper, Catherine W. Competing Visions, Shifting Boundaries: The Construction of Latin America as a World Region. Journal of Geography. May 2007, 106 (3): 113–122. doi:10.1080/00221340701599113.