Four more bloody decades of fighting lay ahead which would end in defeat for two major world players. From March to July, 1946, armed and backed up by the French, the Viet Minh systematically set about executing leaders and members of nationalist Vietnamese groups, as Ho's lieutenant Lê Duẩn said, "(to) wipe out the reactionaries." Known as the "Great Purge", the goal was to eliminate everyone thought dangerous to the Communist Party of Vietnam, and tens of thousands of nationalists, Catholics and others were massacred from 1946–1948.
Between May and December, Ho Chi Minh spent four months in France attempting to negotiate full independence and unity for Vietnam, but failed to obtain any guarantee from the French. After a series of violent clashes with Viet Minh, French forces bombarded Hai Phong harbor and occupied Hanoi, forcing Viet Minh forces to retreat into the jungle. On December 19, 1946, 30,000 Viet Minh under Giap initiated the National Resistance War with an attack on French troops at Hanoi. The War in Vietnam of 1946 – 1954, had begun.
- George Rosie and Bradley Borum, Operation Masterdom: Britain's Secret War in Vietnam
- Concert to mark 66th anniversary of the Southern Resistance War 互联网档案馆的存檔，存档日期2011-12-19.