跨性別性行為

跨性别性行为(英語:Transgender sexuality)是描述跨性别人士的性行为。

历史上,研究认为跨性别性行为可能与传统的人类性行为有所不同。 在20世纪的大部分时间里,所谓的“性別轉換症”被认为是有性的[1][2],因此是这些术语被定義的由來。[3][4][5]

事实上,和其他所有性别一样,跨性别人群表现出各种可能的性取向和性吸引,[6] 包括缺乏性吸引力的無性戀[7]

性取向标签编辑

历史上,临床医生将跨性别者标记为异性恋或同性恋者,与其出生时的性别指定相关。[8]大多数跨性别人士認爲這具有冒犯性,并且倾向于定义与其性别认同相关的性取向。[9]例如,跨性别女同性恋者同时是跨性别女性(出生时性別指定為男性的女性)和女同性恋者(被其他女性吸引的女性)。[10][11]

性取向分布编辑

2015年針對跨性别者的调查显示,自我认定为酷兒者占21%,泛性戀者占18%,男同性恋者或女同性恋者占16%,异性恋者占15%,双性恋者占14%,而无性恋者占10%。[12]

跨性别女性编辑

对约3000名跨性别女性的调查显示,至少有60%被女性吸引。[13]在跨性别女性中,27%的受访者自称为同性恋、女同性恋或同性恋爱恋,20%回答双性恋,19%异性恋,16%男性,6%回答无性,6%酷儿,6%沒有回答。[12]

跨性别男性编辑

到20世纪90年代中期,跨性别男性中的性别认同和性取向的范围已经被公認,[14]大部分跨性别男性主要或完全被女性吸引。[15][16][17][18]

Foerster报道了一位女性与一位在20世纪60年代后期性別轉換的跨性别男性之间已有15年成功的关系。[19][20]

性取向和性別轉換编辑

一些跨性别人士在他们的一生中保持一致的性取向,[21][22]在某些情况下,性別轉換后仍与同一個伴侶在一起。[23]在其他情况下,他们在性伴侣方面的选择可能会在性別轉換后发生改变。[24]

參考文獻编辑

  1. ^ American Psychological Association (APA)(2000)" Gender Identity Disorder in DSM IV TR.页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  2. ^ Buhrish N, McConaghy N (1979). Three clinically discrete categories of fetishistic transvestism..Archives of Sexual Behavior Volume 8, Number 2 / March, 1979.
  3. ^ Person, E; Ovesey, L. The transsexual syndrome in males. I. Primary transsexualism. American Journal of Psychotherapy. 1974, 28 (1): 4–20. PMID 4812111. 
  4. ^ Person, E; Ovesey, L. The transsexual syndrome in males. II. Secondary transsexualism. American Journal of Psychotherapy. 1974b, 28 (2): 174–193. PMID 4829699. 
  5. ^ Wahng SJ (2004). Double Cross: Transamasculinity Asian American Gendering in Trappings of Transhood. in Aldama AJ (ed.) Violence and the Body: Race, Gender, and the State. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34171-X "Thus the institutionalized recognition of the queer-identified, or homosexual, transsexual, is historically groundbreaking. Rosario scrutinized how transgenderism has been described in relation to homosexuality and heterosexuality in both the revised third edition and the fourth edition of the [DSM]. In the DSM-III-R, the classification of "transsexualism" was divided into "homosexual" and "heterosexual" subtypes. However, sexual orientation was based on one's birth sex, so that an FTM who was attracted to women would be deemed a female homosexual transsexual, whereas an FTM attracted to men would be considered a female heterosexual transsexual. These diagnoses were especially confusing since a female homosexual transsexual – that is, an FTM who desires women – would actually identify himself as a heterosexual trans man. And an FTM who desires men, a female heterosexual transsexual, would self-identify as either a gay man or a queer-identified FTM."
  6. ^ Tobin HJ (2003). Sexuality in Transsexual and Transgender Individuals Part I: A Review of the Literature.
  7. ^ Devor H (1997). FTM: Female-to-Male Transsexuals in Society. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21259-6
  8. ^ Chivers, Meredith L.; Bailey, J. Michael. Sexual Orientation of Female-to-Male Transsexuals: A Comparison of Homosexual and Nonhomosexual Types. Archives of Sexual Behavior
  9. ^ Bagemihl B. Surrogate phonology and transsexual faggotry: A linguistic analogy for uncoupling sexual orientation from gender identity. In Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality. Anna Livia, Kira Hall (eds.) pp. 380 ff. Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-510471-4
  10. ^ Transgender FAQ. 8 November 2013 [2018-05-27]. (原始内容存档于2019-05-08). 
  11. ^ Gates, Garry, the Williams Institute - How many people are Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender? (PDF). [2018-05-27]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2019-03-21). 
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 James, S. E., Herman, J. L., Rankin, S., Keisling, M., Mottet, L., & Anafi, M. The Report of the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey (PDF). National Center for Transgender Equality. 2016. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2018-05-09). 
  13. ^ Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (PDF). National Center for Transgender Equality & National Gay and Lesbian Task Force: 29. [2018-05-27]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2011-08-03). 
  14. ^ Linnea Due (October 25, 1995). Genderation X. San Francisco Weekly
  15. ^ Devor H (1993). Sexual Orientation Identities, Attractions, and Practices of Female-to-Male Transsexuals. The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 30, No. 4 (Nov., 1993), pp. 303–315
  16. ^ Devor H (1997). FTM: Female-to-male transsexuals in society. Indiana University Press, ISBN 978-0-253-33631-6
  17. ^ Ira B. Pauly (1998). Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation. In Dallas Denny, ed. Current Concepts in Transgender Identity. Routledge, ISBN 978-0-8153-1793-7
  18. ^ Virginia A. Sadock, Harold I. Kaplan (2008). Kaplan and Sadock's Concise Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry, p. 329. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ISBN 978-0-7817-8746-8
  19. ^ Foerster, DW. Female to Male Transsexual Conversion: A 15-Year Follow-Up. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1983, 72 (2): 237. doi:10.1097/00006534-198308000-00024. 
  20. ^ G. Kockott, E. -M. Fahrner (1988). Male-to-female and Female-to-male transsexuals: A comparison. Archives of Sexual Behavior, Volume 17, Number 6 / December, 1988
  21. ^ Ashley A, Thompson D (1986). The First Lady. John Blake Publishing, ISBN 1-84454-231-9
  22. ^ Cossey C (1992). My Story. Faber & Faber, ISBN 0-571-16251-7
  23. ^ Boylan JF (2003). She's Not There: A Life in Two Genders. Broadway ISBN 0-7679-1404-X
  24. ^ Daskalos, CD. Changes in the Sexual Orientation of Six Heterosexual Male-to-Female Transsexuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 1998, 6 (6): 605–614. doi:10.1023/A:1018725201811.