- What is a Backbone?, Whatis.com, Accessed: June 25, 2007
- Backbone Networks. Chapter 8. Angelfire. [2 October 2013].
- Turner, Brough. Congestion in the Backbone: Telecom and Internet Solutions. CircleID. 12 September 2007 [2 October 2013].
- Shayman, Mark, Abhishek. Relay Placement for Minimizing Congestion in Wireless Backbone Networks (PDF). Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland. [2 October 2013].