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面心立方結構CoCrFeMnNi的原子結構[1]

高熵合金(High-entropy alloys)簡稱HEA,是由五種或五種以上等量或大約等量金屬形成的合金。由於高熵合金可能具有許多理想的性質,因此在材料科學及工程上相當受到重視[2]。以往的合金中主要的金屬成份可能只有一至兩種。例如會以鐵為基礎,再加入一些微量的元素來提昇其特性,因此所得的就是以鐵為主的合金[2]。過往的概念中,若合金中加的金屬種類越多,會使其材質脆化,但高熵合金和以往的合金不同,有多種金屬卻不會脆化,是一種新的材料[1][2][3]

研究發現有些高熵合金的比強度比傳統合金好很多,而且抗断裂能力抗拉強度、抗腐蝕及抗氧化特性都比傳統的合金要好。高熵合金在2004年以前就已問世,但在2010年代才有許多相關的研究[2][4][5][6][7][8]

參考資料编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Wang, Shaoqing. Atomic Structure Modeling of Multi-Principal-Element Alloys by the Principle of Maximum Entropy. Entropy. 13 December 2013, 15 (12): 5536–5548. Bibcode:2013Entrp..15.5536W. doi:10.3390/e15125536.  HTML full text article available
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Tsai, Ming-Hung; Yeh, Jien-Wei. High-Entropy Alloys: A Critical Review. Materials Research Letters. 30 April 2014, 2 (3): 107–123. doi:10.1080/21663831.2014.912690.  Free PDF download.
  3. ^ 【央廣RTI】「高熵合金」打破多元素合金易脆迷思
  4. ^ Lavine, Marc S. A metal alloy that is stronger when cold. Science. 2014, 345: 1131 [9 January 2015]. Bibcode:2014Sci...345Q1131L. doi:10.1126/science.345.6201.1131-b. 
  5. ^ Shipman, Matt. New 'high-entropy' alloy is as light as aluminum, as strong as titanium alloys. Phys.org. 10 December 2014 [9 January 2015]. 
  6. ^ Youssef, Khaled M.; Zaddach, Alexander J.; Niu, Changning; Irving, Douglas L.; Koch, Carl C. A Novel Low-Density, High-Hardness, High-entropy Alloy... (Free PDF download). Materials Research Letters. 9 December 2014: 1. doi:10.1080/21663831.2014.985855. 
  7. ^ Yarris, Lyn. A metallic alloy that is tough and ductile at cryogenic temperatures. Berkeley Lab News Center (University of California, Berkeley). 4 September 2014 [9 January 2015]. 
  8. ^ Gludovatz, B.; Hohenwarter, A.; Catoor, D.; Chang, E. H.; George, E. P.; Ritchie, R. O. A fracture-resistant high-entropy alloy for cryogenic applications (Free PDF download). Science (AAAS). 5 September 2014, 345 (6201): 1153–1158 [9 January 2015]. Bibcode:2014Sci...345.1153G. PMID 25190791. doi:10.1126/science.1254581. 

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