A·C·本森

亚瑟·克里斯托弗·本森 (1862年4月24日 – 1925年6月17日) ,英国散文家、诗人和学者[1]剑桥大学抹大拉学院第二十八任校长。他为爱德华·埃尔加的《加冕颂》作词,也为埃尔加的作品,英国爱国歌曲《希望与光荣的土地》作词。

A. C. 本森
Bensonac.jpg
亚瑟·克里斯托弗·本森
第28届剑桥大学抹大拉学院校长
任期
1915-1925
前任斯图尔特·亚历山大·道纳森
继任艾伦·比维尔·拉姆齐
个人资料
出生1862年4月24日
逝世1925年6月17日
公民权英国
学历坦普尔格罗夫学校
伊顿公学
母校剑桥大学国王学院

早期生活和家庭编辑

亚瑟·克里斯托弗·本森1862年4月24日出生在伯克郡惠灵顿学院,是爱德华·怀特·本森(1829-1896)六个孩子之一,他在1883年至1896年间担任坎特伯雷大主教,在此之前是该学院的第一任校长。

本森的家庭成员中還有E. F. 本森,他与他的代表作《马普和露西亚》, 和R.H. 本森一樣,他原是英国圣公会的牧师,后来改信罗马天主教,他也是一名作家。他的妹妹玛格丽特·本森是一位艺术家、作家和埃及学家。

不過本森家族的家族命运并没有那么一帆风顺:一子一女早逝,而另一个女儿和亚瑟本人则可能患上了某种精神疾病,可能是躁鬱症[2]这似乎是遗传自他们的父母,并且其后他们的孩子没有任何一人结婚[3]

尽管本森本人患病,但亚瑟后来还是成为了一名学者和作家。从10岁到21岁期间,他一直生活在接近教堂的地方,首先是在林肯郡居住,他的父亲是林肯大教堂的主教,然后是在特鲁罗居住,他的父亲是特鲁罗的第一位主教。他对教堂的音乐和宗教仪式也颇感兴趣。

1874年,他在东希恩的坦普尔格罗夫学校获得了伊顿公学的奖学金,1881年升入剑桥大学国王学院,他在那里成为了一名学者并获得了奖学金(国王学院的封闭式奖金只有伊顿公学的学生才有资格获得)并于1884年在古典三段式课程中获得一等奖。[4]

生平编辑

从1885年到1903年期间,本森在伊顿公学教书,在1904年回到剑桥,成为剑桥大学抹大拉学院的院士,讲授英国文学。1912年,他成为该学院的硕士(院长的副手)。从1915年12月到1925年去世之前,他一直担任剑桥大学抹大拉学院的院长。从1906年起,是格雷欣学校的校监。[5]

 
"Fasti Etonenses", Benson caricatured by Spy for Vanity Fair, 1903.

本森推动了抹大拉学院的现代化[4],他很大程度上影响了这座学院。在这座学院里至少有20个铭文是关于他的。[6]在1930年的时候,一个新的本森法院以他的名字来命名。[7]

本森和伊舍勋爵一起在1907年的时候编写了关于收集维多利亚女王的信,任务是将460卷维多利亚女王的书信编辑成书[8][9] 他的诗歌和散文集如 From a College WindowThe Upton Letters (以书信形式写的散文) 在当时很有名。他还留下了有史以来最长的日记之一,约四百万字的日记。他对但丁·加百列·羅塞蒂、爱德华·菲茨杰拉德、華特·荷瑞修·佩特约翰·拉斯金的文学评论是他最好的作品之一。

本森作了《加冕颂》的歌词,这是一首由爱德华·埃尔加为1902年英国国王爱德华七世和王后亚历山德拉的加冕仪式的配乐。而它的结尾就是英国最著名的爱国歌曲之一 "希望与光荣的土地"。

如同他的兄弟爱德华·弗雷德里克以及罗伯特·休一样,本森本人也是个著名的鬼故事作家。他写的两大卷的鬼故事作品如:The Hill of Trouble and Other Stories (1903) 和The Isles of Sunset (1904) ,这些是为他的学生所写的道德寓言。亚瑟·本森死后,弗雷德·本森发现了一本亚瑟·本森未发表的鬼故事小说集,并将其中两篇收入了 Basil Netherby (1927)。[10] 但是其他未被发现的故事可就无从得知了。Paul the Minstrel and Other Stories (1911, reprinted 1977) 收集了一些来自于 The Hill of Trouble and Other StoriesThe Isles of Sunset的内容。[11] 还有九个本森的鬼故事被收录于大卫·斯图尔特的The Temple of Death: The Ghost Stories of A. C. & R. H. Benson (Wordsworth, 2007),以及他的兄弟R. H. Benson的七篇故事,和A. C. Benson的九篇故事以及Robert的十篇故事则被收录于 Ghosts in the House (Ash-Tree, 1996) – 有趣的是,上面提到的那些各个收录的合集之中的内容相似却不完全相同。

死亡编辑

亚瑟·克里斯托弗·本森最后死于抹大拉学院的硕士门房,去世后被埋葬在剑桥的圣吉尔斯公墓。

作品编辑

  • Men of Might: Studies of Great Characters, with H. F. W. Tatham, 1892[12]
  • Le Cahier Jaune: Poems, 1892[13]
  • Poems, 1893
  • Genealogy of the Family of Benson of Banger House and Northwoods, in the Parish of Ripon and Chapelry of Pateley Bridge, 1894[14]
  • Lyrics, 1895[15]
  • Lord Vyet & Other Poems, 1898
  • Ode in Memory of the Rt. Honble. William Ewart Gladstone, 1898[16]
  • Thomas Gray, 1895[17]
  • Essays, 1896.[18]
  • Fasti Etonenses: A Biographical History of Eton, 1899[19]
  • The Professor: and Other Poems, 1900[20]
  • The Schoolmaster, 1902[21]
  • The Upton Letters, 1905[22]
  • Monnow: An Ode, 1906
  • The Hill of Trouble and Other Stories, 1903[23]
  • The Isles of Sunset, 1904[24]
  • Peace: and Other Poems, 1905[25]
  • The Gate of Death: A Diary, 1906[26]
  • From a College Window, 1906[22]
  • Rossetti, 1906[27]
  • Walter Pater, 1906[28]
  • The Thread of Gold, 1907[29]
  • Memoirs of Arthur Hamilton, 1907[22]
  • The House of Quiet: An Autobiography, 1907[30]
  • The Altar Fire, 1907[22]
  • The Letters of One, a Study in Limitations, 1907
  • Beside Still Waters, 1908[31]
  • At Large, 1908[22]
  • Tennyson, 1908[32]
  • Until the Evening, 1909[33]
  • The Poems of A. C. Benson, 1909[34]
  • The Child of the Dawn, 1911[35]
  • Paul the Minstrel and Other Stories, 1911[22]
  • The Leaves of the Tree: Studies in Biography, 1911[36]
  • Ruskin: A Study in Personality, 1911[37]
  • The Letters of Queen Victoria, 1907[38][39][40]
  • Thy Rod and Thy Staff, 1912[41]
  • The Beauty of Life: Being Selections from the Writings of Arthur Christopher Benson, 1912[42]
  • Joyous Gard, 1913[43]
  • The Silent Isle, 1913[44]
  • Along the Road, 1913[45]
  • Where No Fear Was: A Book About Fear, 1914[22]
  • The Orchard Pavilion, 1914[46]
  • Escape and Other Essays, 1916[47]
  • Meanwhile; A Packet of War Letters, 1916[48]
  • Father Payne, 1917[49]
  • Life and Letters of Maggie Benson, 1920[50]
  • Watersprings, 1920[51]
  • Hugh: Memoirs of a Brother, 1920[52]
  • The Reed of Pan; English Renderings of Greek Epigrams and Lyrics, 1922[53]
  • Magdalene College, Cambridge: A Little View of Its Buildings and History, 1923[54]
  • Selected Poems, 1924
  • Chris Gascoyne; An Experiment in Solitude, from the Diaries of John Trevor, 1924
  • Everybody's Book of the Queen's Dolls' House, 1924
  • Memories and Friends, 1924
  • Edward Fitzgerald, 1925[55]
  • The House of Menerdue, 1925[56]
  • Rambles and Reflections, 1926[57]
  • Basil Netherby, 1926
  • The Diary of Arthur Christopher Benson, 1926

文学评论编辑

  • "The Poetry of Mr. A. C. Benson", Sewanee Review, Volume 14 (Sewanee: University of the South, 1906), 110–111, 405–421.[58]
  • "Poets All", The Speaker, Volume 15, 13 February 1897 (London), 196[59]
  • "Mr. Benson's Poems", The Literary World, Volume 48, 3 November 1893 (London: James Clarke & Co.), 329[60]
  • "Selected Poetry of Arthur Christopher Benson" (1862–1925)[3]
  • "A Literary Causerie" in The Speaker, Volume 15, 13 March 1897 (London), 299[59]

参考编辑

引用文献编辑

  1. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Who's Who. 1907, 59: 136 [2021-12-11]. (原始内容存档于2021-12-27). 
  2. ^ Ridley, Jane. The gay Lambeth way" (review of Rodney Bolt, As Good as God, as Clever as the Devil: The Impossible Life of Mary Benson). The Spectator. 9 July 2011 [2021-12-11]. (原始内容存档于2019-08-02). 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Selected Poetry of Arthur Christopher Benson, 1862–1925. Representative Poetry Online. University of Toronto. [2021-12-11]. (原始内容存档于2016-03-04).  已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助)
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Benson, Arthur Christopher (BN881AC). A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge. 
  5. ^ The Times newspaper, 22 October 1906, p. 6, col. C.
  6. ^ Twentieth Century. Magdalene College. [14 September 2014]. (原始内容存档于1 March 2004). 
  7. ^ The colleges and halls - Magdalene页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) - British History Online. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
  8. ^ Ward, Yvonne M. Censoring Queen Victoria: how two gentlemen edited a queen and created an icon. Oneworld. 2014. ISBN 9781780743639. 
  9. ^ Review of The Letters of Queen Victoria edited by A. C. Benson and Viscount Esher, 3 vols.. The Athenaeum. October 26, 1907, (4174): 509–510 [2021-12-11]. (原始内容存档于2021-12-25). 
  10. ^ Mike Ashley, "The Essential Writers: Blood Brothers" (Profile of E. F., A. C. and R. H. Benson). Rod Serling's The Twilight Zone Magazine, pp. 63–70, May/June 1984.
  11. ^ Jack Sullivan, ed., The Penguin Encyclopedia of Horror and the Supernatural. NY: Viking Penguin, 1986, p. 30.
  12. ^ Men of Might: Studies of Great Characters. Arnold. 1899 [2021-12-11]. (原始内容存档于2021-12-25) –通过Google Books. 
  13. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Le Cahier Jaune: Poems. G. New. 1892 –通过Internet Archive. 
  14. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Genealogy of the Family of Benson of Banger House and Northwoods, in the Parish of Ripon and Chapelry of Pateley Bridge. New. 1894 –通过Internet Archive. Genealogy of the family of Benson 
  15. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Lyrics. John Lane. 1895 –通过Internet Archive. 
  16. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Ode in Memory of the Rt. Honble. William Ewart Gladstone. R. Ingalton Drake. 1898 [2021-12-11]. (原始内容存档于2021-12-25) –通过Google Books. 
  17. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Thomas Gray. Eton. 1895. hdl:2027/hvd.hwilqf. 
  18. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Essays. New York. 1896. hdl:2027/hvd.32044086675808. 
  19. ^ Review of Fasti Etonenses by A. C. Benson & A History of Eton College by Lionel Cust. The Athenæum. 6 January 1900, (3767): 8–9 [2021-12-11]. (原始内容存档于2021-12-11). 
  20. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. The Professor: And Other Poems. John Lane. 1900 –通过Internet Archive. 
  21. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. The Schoolmaster: A Commentary Upon the Aims and Methods of an Assistant-master in a Public School. Putnam. 1908 –通过Internet Archive. 
  22. ^ 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 Project Gutenberg. [2021-12-11]. (原始内容存档于2019-02-26). 
  23. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. The Hill of Trouble and Other Stories. London. 1903. hdl:2027/inu.39000002156706. 
  24. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. The Isles of Sunset. Ibister. 1905 –通过Internet Archive. 
  25. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Peace: And Other Poems. J. Lane. 1905 –通过Internet Archive. 
  26. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. The Gate of Death: A Diary. G. P. Putnam's sons. 1906 [2021-12-11]. (原始内容存档于2021-12-25) –通过Google Books. 
  27. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Rossetti. English men of letters. S. Chand & Co. 1906. hdl:2027/njp.32101066385236. 
  28. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Walter Pater. Macmillan. 1906 –通过Internet Archive. A. C. Benson Walter Pater 
  29. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. The Thread of Gold. Murray. 1907 –通过Internet Archive. 
  30. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. The House of Quiet: An Autobiography. E. P. Dutton. 1907 –通过Internet Archive. The House of Quiet: an Autobiography 
  31. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Beside Still Waters. G.P. Putnam's Sons. 1908 –通过Internet Archive. 
  32. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Alfred Tennyson. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co. 1907. hdl:2027/uc1.b3742961. 
  33. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Until the Evening. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. 1909. hdl:2027/uc2.ark:/13960/t7fq9th3h. 
  34. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. The Poems of A. C. Benson.... J. Lane. 1909 [2021-12-11]. (原始内容存档于2021-12-26) –通过Google Books. 
  35. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. The Child of the Dawn. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1912 –通过Internet Archive. 
  36. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. The Leaves of the Tree; Studies in Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1911. hdl:2027/uc2.ark:/13960/t5k93398t. 
  37. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Ruskin: A Study in Personality. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. 1911. hdl:2027/uiug.30112074811271. 
  38. ^ Victoria. The Letters of Queen Victoria, a selection from Her Majesty's correspondence between the years 1837 and 1861, published by authority of His Majesty the king; Vol. I 1837–1843. London: John Murray. 1907. hdl:2027/umn.31951002171032u. 
  39. ^ Victoria. The Letters of Queen Victoria, a selection from Her Majesty's correspondence between the years 1837 and 1861, published by authority of His Majesty the king; Vol. II 1844–1853. New York: Longmans, Green & Co. 1907. hdl:2027/hvd.hx3v5u. 
  40. ^ Victoria. The Letters of Queen Victoria, a selection from Her Majesty's correspondence between the years 1837 and 1861, published by authority of His Majesty the king; Vol. III 1854–1861. London: John Murray. 1907. hdl:2027/osu.32435028626158. 
  41. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Thy Rod and Thy Staff. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1912. hdl:2027/uc2.ark:/13960/t6154n414. 
  42. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. The Beauty of Life: being selections from the writings of Arthur Christopher Benson. London, New York, Toronto: Hodder & Stoughton. 1912. hdl:2027/inu.39000002953664. 
  43. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Joyous Gard. New York and London: G.P. Putnam's. 1913. hdl:2027/uc1.$b682860. 
  44. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. The Silent Isle. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1910. hdl:2027/uc1.$b682863. 
  45. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Along the Road. London: James Nisbet & Co. 1913. hdl:2027/pst.000006729585. 
  46. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. The Orchard Pavilion. New York and London: G.P. Putnam's Sons. 1914. hdl:2027/inu.30000118996788. 
  47. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Escape, and Other Essays. New York: The Century Co. 1915. hdl:2027/hvd.32044090316472. 
  48. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Meanwhile; A Packet of War Letters. London: John Murray. 1916. hdl:2027/uc1.b4078800. 
  49. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Father Payne. Putnam. 1917 –通过Internet Archive. Father Payne 
  50. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Life and Letters of Maggie Benson. J. Murray. 1917 –通过Internet Archive. Life and Letters of Maggie Benson 
  51. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Watersprings. Smith, Elder. 1913 –通过Internet Archive. Watersprings 
  52. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Hugh: Memoirs of a Brother. Longmans, Green. 1915 –通过Internet Archive. Hugh: Memoirs of a Brother 
  53. ^ Benson, A. C. The Reed of Pan; English renderings of Greek epigrams and lyrics. 1922. 
  54. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Magdalene College, Cambridge; A little view of its buildings and history. Cambridge: Bowes & Bowes. 1923. hdl:2027/uc1.$b279316. 
  55. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Edward Fitzgerald. Macmillan. 1905 –通过Internet Archive. Edward Fitzgerald 
  56. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. The House of Menerdue. London: William Heinemann. 1925. hdl:2027/uc1.$b682947. 
  57. ^ Benson, Arthur Christopher. Rambles and Reflections. London: John Murray. 1926. hdl:2027/uc1.$b682862. 
  58. ^ The Sewanee Review. University of the South. 1906 [2021-12-11]. (原始内容存档于2021-12-26) –通过Google Books. 
  59. ^ 59.0 59.1 The Speaker. 1897 [2021-12-11]. (原始内容存档于2021-12-25) –通过Google Books. 
  60. ^ The Literary World. 1893 [2021-12-11]. (原始内容存档于2021-12-26) –通过Google Books. 

来源编辑

外部链接编辑