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沙丁胺醇

(重定向自Salbutamol

沙丁胺醇(salbutamol),一种短效β2肾上腺素能受体激动剂,用作平喘药

沙丁胺醇
Salbutamol Enantiomers Structural Formulae.png
RS-salbutamol-from-xtal-3D-balls.png
系统(IUPAC)命名名称
(RS)-4-[2-(tert-butylamino)-1-hydroxyethyl]-2-(hydroxymethyl)phenol
(RS)-4-[2-(叔丁氨基)-1-羟乙基]-2-(羟甲基)苯酚
临床数据
妊娠分级
  • AU: A
  • US: C (不排除有风险的可能)
给药途径 口服,吸入,静注
合法狀態
合法状态
药代动力学数据
代谢 肝脏
生物半衰期 1.6小时
排泄 肾脏
识别信息
CAS注册号 18559-94-9
ATC代码 R03AC02 R03CC02
PubChem CID 2083
IUPHAR/BPS英语IUPHAR/BPS 558
DrugBank APRD00553
ChemSpider 1999 ✓
UNII QF8SVZ843E ✓
KEGG D02147 ✓
ChEMBL英语ChEMBL CHEMBL714 ✓
化学信息
化学式 C13H21NO3
摩尔质量 239.311
沙丁胺醇
Salbutamol.svg
RS-salbutamol-from-xtal-3D-balls.png
Salbutamol (top),
(R)-(−)-salbutamol (center) and
(S)-(+)-salbutamol (bottom)
系统(IUPAC)命名名称
(RS)-4-[2-(tert-Butylamino)-1-hydroxyethyl]-2-(hydroxymethyl)phenol
临床数据
商品名 Ventolin, Proventil, others[2]
Drugs.com Monograph
医疗法规
妊娠分级
  • AU: A
  • US: C (不排除有风险的可能)
给药途径 by mouth, inhalational, IV
合法狀態
合法状态
药代动力学数据
代谢 Liver
起效 <15 min (inhaled), <30 min (pill)[3]
生物半衰期 3.8–6 hours
作用时间 2–6 hrs[3]
排泄 Kidney
识别信息
CAS注册号 18559-94-9 ✓
ATC代码 R03AC02 R03CC02
PubChem CID 2083
IUPHAR/BPS英语IUPHAR/BPS 558
DrugBank DB01001 ✗
ChemSpider 1999 ✓
UNII QF8SVZ843E ✓
KEGG D02147 ✓
ChEBI CHEBI:2549 ✗
ChEMBL英语ChEMBL CHEMBL714 ✓
化学信息
化学式 C13H21NO3
摩尔质量 239.311 g/mol
手性 Racemic mixture
 ✗✓ (what is this?)英语Wikipedia:WikiProject_Chemicals/Chembox_validation  (verify)

Salbutamol, also known as albuterol and marketed as Ventolin among other names,[2] is a medication that opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs.[3] It is used to treat asthma including asthma attacks, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction英语exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).[3] It may also be used to treat high blood potassium levels.[4] Salbutamol is usually used with an inhaler英语metered-dose inhaler or nebulizer英语nebulizer but is also available as a pill and intravenous solution.[3][5] Onset of action of the inhaled version is typically within 15 minutes and lasts for two to six hours.[3]

Common side effects include shakiness, headache, fast heart rate, dizziness, and feeling anxious. Serious side effects may include worsening bronchospasm英语bronchospasm, irregular heartbeat, and low blood potassium levels.[3] It can be used during pregnancy and breastfeeding, but safety is not entirely clear.[3][6] It is a short-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist which works by causing airway smooth muscles to relax.[3]

Salbutamol was first made in 1967 in Britain and became commercially available in the UK in 1969.[7] It was approved for medical use in the United States in 1982.[3] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system英语health system.[8] It is available as a generic medication.[3] The wholesale cost in the developing world of an inhaler which contains 200 doses is between $1.12 and $2.64 (USD) as of 2014.[9] In the United States, it is between $25 and $50 for a typical month supply.[10]

参考编辑

  1. ^ Health Canada
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 引用错误:没有为名为brands的参考文献提供内容
  3. ^ 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 Albuterol. Drugs.com. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. [Dec 2, 2015]. 
  4. ^ Mahoney, BA; Smith, WA; Lo, DS; Tsoi, K; Tonelli, M; Clase, CM. Emergency interventions for hyperkalaemia.. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 18 April 2005, (2): CD003235. PMID 15846652. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003235.pub2. 
  5. ^ Starkey, ES; Mulla, H; Sammons, HM; Pandya, HC. Intravenous salbutamol for childhood asthma: evidence-based medicine? (PDF). Archives of Disease in Childhood. September 2014, 99 (9): 873–7. PMID 24938536. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2013-304467. 
  6. ^ Yaffe, Sumner J. Drugs in pregnancy and lactation : a reference guide to fetal and neonatal risk 9th. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2011: 32. ISBN 9781608317080. 
  7. ^ Landau, Ralph. Pharmaceutical innovation : revolutionizing human health. Philadelphia: Chemical Heritage Press. 1999: 226. ISBN 9780941901215. 
  8. ^ WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List) (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015 [8 December 2016]. 
  9. ^ Salbutamol. International Drug Price Indicator Guide. [5 December 2015]. 
  10. ^ Hamilton, Richart. Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. 2015: 448. ISBN 9781284057560.