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T4噬菌体
Tevenphage.svg
科学分类 编辑
界: 病毒界 Virus
病毒组: 双链DNA病毒 dsDNA (I)
目: 有尾噬菌体目 Caudovirales
科: 肌尾噬菌体科 Myoviridae
属: T4噬菌体属 T4virus
种: T4噬菌体
Enterobacteria phage T4

T4噬菌体是噬菌体的一个品系,属于T-系噬菌体,为烈性噬菌体。具有典型的蝌蚪状外形:六角形的头部和可收缩的长的尾部。头部的蛋白质外壳内含有折叠的DNA分子;尾部的蛋白质外壳为一中空的长管,外面包有可收缩的尾鞘。头部大小为65*95nm,颈部长95nm,尾部120nm。

介绍编辑

侵染寄主时,尾鞘收缩,头部的DNA即通过中空的尾部注入细胞内。T-系噬菌体是研究最广泛和深入的细菌噬菌体,侵染大肠杆菌(一种正常栖居在人类肠道中的细菌)B菌株,T为英文Type的字头,并按其发现的前后顺序编号为T1,2,3,4,5,6,7,因其偶数型(2,4,6)结构的化学组成与奇数型(1,3,5,7)不同,故又分为T-偶数系与T-奇数系。例:T4属偶数系。

结构编辑

其构造属复合对称体制。因结构简单、遗传背景清楚、增殖容易、对人无害,故是迄今被研究得最透彻、在病毒学分子遗传学研究中应用最广泛的模式生物之一。构造分头部、颈部和尾部3部分。头部呈拉长的二十面体结构,长95nm,宽65 nm,衣壳由9~19种蛋白质组成,蛋白质含量占 76%~81%,含有直径为6nm的衣壳粒212个。核心由线状dsDNA组成,长约50μm(约为头长的650倍),由1.7×10bp构成(包括约2.3%末端冗余)。 DNA成分特殊,以5-羟甲基胞嘧啶(HMC)取代常见的胞嘧啶。头、尾部相连处有一颈部,包括颈环和颈须,前者为一六角形盘状结构,直径37.5nm,每一角上各长一颈须,用以裹住吸附前的尾丝。长而可收缩的尾部由尾鞘、尾管、基板、刺突和尾丝5部分组成。尾鞘长95、宽22 nm,是一种由相对分子质量为55 000的衣壳粒共144个缠绕而成的24环螺旋组成。尾管长95 nm,直径8nm,中央孔道的直径为2.5~3.5 nm,它是头部核酸即基因组注入寄主细胞时的必经之路。尾管亦由24环螺旋组成,与尾鞘相对应。基板与颈环相似,为一有中央尾孔的六角形盘状物,直径为30.5 nm,上长6个刺突和6根尾丝。刺突长20nm,有吸附功能。尾丝可折成2段,长140nm,直径3~ 4nm,由2种相对分子质量较大的蛋白质和4种相对分子质量较小的蛋白质组成,能专一地吸附在敏感寄主细胞表面的相应受体上。T4的尾孔至少含溶菌酶等8种蛋白质。3种T偶数噬菌体在寄主细胞表面有不同的吸附位点:T4在大肠埃希氏菌(Escherichia coli)B菌株上的吸附位点是LPS核心多糖中的α-葡糖基-(1→3)葡萄糖末端,在K菌株上则为LPS或外膜蛋白 OmpC。 科学家们在T4噬菌体中发现了一种酶,称为T4-DNA连接酶,在转基因技术中用作黏性末端平末端的连接酶。对平末端连接效率低下。

参见编辑

参考编辑

延伸阅读编辑

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  • Abedon S.T. The murky origin of Snow White and her T-even dwarfs. Genetics. 2000, 155 (2): 481–6. PMC 1461100. PMID 10835374.  (Historical description of the isolation of the T4-like phages T2, T4, and T6)
  • Ackermann HW, Krisch HM. A catalogue of T4-type bacteriophages. Arch. Virol. 1997, 142 (12): 2329–45. PMID 9672598. doi:10.1007/s007050050246. (原始内容存档于1 November 2001).  (Nearly complete list of then-known T4-like phages)
  • Monod C, Repoila F, Kutateladze M, Tétart F, Krisch HM. The genome of the pseudo T-even bacteriophages, a diverse group that resembles T4. J. Mol. Biol. March 1997, 267 (2): 237–49. PMID 9096222. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1996.0867.  (Overview of various T4-like phages from the perspective of their genomes)
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  • Karam, J. D. et al. 1994. Molecular Biology of Bacteriophage T4. ASM Press, Washington, DC. (The second T4 bible, go here, as well as Mosig and Eiserling, 2006, to begin to learn about the biology T4 phage) ISBN 1-55581-064-0
  • Eddy, S. R. 1992. Introns in the T-Even Bacteriophages. Ph.D. thesis. University of Colorado at Boulder. (Chapter 3 provides overview of various T4-like phages as well as the isolation of then-new T4-like phages)
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外部链接编辑