Talk:阿尔巴尼亚意占时期

活跃的讨论内容

未翻譯內容编辑

未翻譯內容如下,完成如可搬回條目頁面:

歷史编辑

義大利入侵前準備:對阿爾巴尼亞政治滲透以及其領土主張编辑

The Italian Fascist regime had politically and economically penetrated and dominated Albania during Zog's rule and was planning for annexation of Albania years prior to the event.[1] Under Zog, Albania's economy was dependent on multiple financial loans given from Italy since 1931.[2] In August 1933, Mussolini placed stringent demands on Zog in exchange for Italy's continued support of Albania, including demands that all new appointments to leading positions in the Albanian government had to have received an "Italian education"; that an Italian expert was in the future to be in all Albanian government ministries; that Italy would take control of Albania's military - including its fortifications; that British officers that were training Albania's gendarmee be replaced by Italian officers; and that Albania must annul all of its existing commercial treaties with other countries and make no new agreements without the approval of the Italian government; and that Albania sign a commercial convention that would make Italy Albania's "most favoured country" in trade.[3] In 1934 when Albania did not deliver its scheduled payment of one loan to Italy, Italian warships arrived off the coast of Albania to intimidate Albania to submit to Italian goals in the region, however the British opposed Italy's actions and under pressure, Italy backed down and claimed that the naval exercise was merely a "friendly visit".[2] on August 25, 1937, Italian foreign minister Count Ciano wrote in his diary of Italy's relations with Albania in the following: "We must create stable centres of Italian influence there. Who knows what the future may have in store? We must be ready to seize opportunities which will present themselves. We are not going to withdraw this time, as we did in 1920. In the south [of Italy] we have absorbed several hundred thousand Albanians. Why shouldn’t the same thing happen on the other side of the entrance to the Adriatic.".[4] On March 26, 1938, Ciano wrote in his diary of annexing Albania like Germany did with Austria shortly prior: "A report from Jacomoni on the situation in Albania. Our penetration is becoming steadily more intense and more organic. The programme which I traced after my visit is being carried out without a hitch. I am wondering whether the general situation – particularly the Anschluss [with Austria] – does not permit us to take a step forward towards the more complete domination of this country, which will be ours." and days later on April 4 of that year wrote "We must gradually underline the protectorate element of our relations with Albania".[5]

義大利入侵以及建立傀儡政權编辑

In spite of Albania's long-standing protection and alliance with Italy, on 7 April 1939 Italian troops invaded Albania,[6] five months before the start of the Second World War. The Albanian armed resistance proved ineffective against the Italians and, after a short defense, the country was occupied. On 9 April 1939 the Albanian king, Zog I fled to Greece.[7] Although Albania had been a de facto Italian protectorate since 1927,[8][9][10] Italy's political leader, Benito Mussolini required direct control over the country to increase his own prestige and provide a response to Germany's annexation of Austria and occupation of Czechoslovakia.

 

阿尔巴尼亚历史

起源
伊利里亚人
奥斯曼帝国
中世纪侯国时期
白水战役
民族复兴
君主制
米尔迪塔共和国(1921年)
阿尔巴尼亚共和国(1925年-1928年)
阿尔巴尼亚王国(1928年-1939年)
轴心国占领
意大利占领时期(1939年-1943年)
共产党时期至今
社会主义人民共和国(1946年-1992年)
后共产主义时期(1992年至今)


Albania was an Italian protectorate subordinated to Italian interests, along the lines of the German Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia: the Albanian crown was declared in personal union with the Italian crown, Albania was to be governed by an Italian vicegerent representing King Victor Emmanuel III, a customs union was enacted, and Albanian foreign policy was to be handled by Rome. The Albanian armed forces were subsumed in the Italian military, Italian advisors were placed inside all levels of the Albanian administration, and the country fascisticized with the establishment of an Albanian Fascist Party and its attendant organizations, modelled after the Italian prototype. The Albanian Fascist Party was a branch of the National Fascist Party of Italy, members of the Albanian Fascist Party took an oath to obey the orders of the Duce of Fascism, Mussolini.[11] Italian citizens began to settle in Albania as colonists and to own land so that they could gradually transform it into Italian soil.[12]

While Victor Emmanuel ruled as king, Shefqet Vërlaci served as the Prime Minister. Vërlaci controlled the day-to-day activities of the Italian protectorate. On 3 December 1941, Shefqet Vërlaci was replaced as Prime Minister and Head of Government by Mustafa Merlika-Kruja.[13] The country's natural resources too came under direct control of Italy. All petroleum resources in Albania went through Agip, Italy's state petroleum company.[14]

Albania was important culturally and historically to the nationalist aims of the Italian Fascists, as the territory of Albania had long been part of the Roman Empire, even prior to the annexation of northern Italy by the Romans. Later, during the High Middle Ages some coastal areas (like Durazzo) had been influenced and owned by Italian powers, chiefly the Kingdom of Naples and the Republic of Venice for many years (cf. Albania Veneta). The Italian Fascist regime legitimized its claim to Albania through studies proclaiming the racial affinity of Albanians and Italians, especially as opposed ot the Slavic Yugoslavs.[15] Italian Fascists claimed that Albanians were linked through ethnic heritage to Italians due to links with the prehistoric Italiotes, Illyrian and Roman populations, and that the major influence exhibited by the Roman and Venetian empires over Albania justified Italy's right to possess it.[16]

Italy also attempted to legitimize and win public support for its rule over Albania by supporting Albanian irredentism, directed against the predominantly Albanian-populated Kosovo in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Epirus in Greece, particularly the border area of Chameria, inhabited by the Cham Albanian minority.[17] Thus a Fascist Italian publication named Geopolitica claimed that the population of the Epirus-Acarnania region of Greece belonged to Albania due to it being racially Dinaric, and formed a 'single geographic system' with the Adriatic zone.[16] Despite the efforts of the Italian vicegerent, Francesco Jacomoni, to stir up insurrections and create a fifth column, and the favourable reports he sent to the Italian foreign minister Count Ciano, events proved that there was little enthusiasm among the Albanians themselves: after the Italian invasion of Greece, most Albanians either deserted or defected.[18]

阿爾巴尼亞戰爭時期编辑

File:Ciano arriving in Albania on April 1939.jpg
Italian foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano arriving in Albania in April 1939.

Strategically, control of Albania gave Italy an important beachhead in the Balkans: not only did it complete Italian control of the Strait of Otranto and the entrance to the Adriatic Sea, it could be used to invade either Yugoslavia (in tandem with another thrust via Veneto) or Greece.[8]

In 1939, Count Ciano spoke of Albanian irredentist claims to Kosovo as valuable to Italy's objectives, saying:

The Kosovars [are] 850,000 Albanians, strong of body, firm in spirit, and enthusiastic about the idea of a Union with their Homeland. Apparently, the Serbians are terrified of them. Today one must…chloroform the Yugoslavians. But later on one must adopt a politics of deep interest in Kosovo. This will help to keep alive in the Balkans an irredentist problem which will polarize the attention of the Albanians themselves and be a knife at the back of Yugoslavia.[19] — Galleazo Ciano,1939

In October 1940, during the Greco-Italian War, Albania served as a staging-area for Italian dictator Benito Mussolini's unsuccessful invasion of Greece. Mussolini planned to invade Greece and other countries like Yugoslavia in the area to give Italy territorial control of most of the Mediterranean Sea coastline, as part of the Fascists' objective of creating the objective of Mare Nostrum ("Our Sea") in which Italy would dominate the Mediterranean. But the Albanian army under the command of colonel (later general) Prenk Pervizi[20] abandoned the Italians in combat, causing a major unraveling of their lines. The Albanian army believed to be the cause of the betrayal was removed from the front. The Colonel Pervizi and his staff of officials was isolated in the mountains of Puka and Shkodra to the North.[21] This was the first action of revolt against the Italian occupation.

But, soon after the Italian invasion, the Greeks counter-attacked and a sizable portion of Albania was in Greek hands (including the cities of Gjirokastër and Korçë). In April 1941, Greece capitulated after an overwhelming German invasion. All of Albania returned to Italian control, which was also extended to most of Greece, which was jointly occupied by Italy, Germany and Bulgaria. Italian plans however to annex Chameria to Albania were shelved due strong opposition and ethnic conflict between Albanians and Greeks, as well as opposition by Aromanians to the region being Albanianized.[22]

After the fall of Yugoslavia and Greece in April 1941, the Italian government began negotiations with Germany, Bulgaria, and the newly established client state, the Independent State of Croatia, on defining their borders. In April Mussolini called for the borders of Albania to be expanded - including annexing Montenegro into Albania that would have an autonomous government within Albania, and expanding Albania's border eastwards, though not as far as the Vardar river as some had proposed - citing that Ohrid should be left to the Slavic Macedonians, regardless of whether Vardar Macedonia would become an independent state or be annexed by Bulgaria.[23] However the Italian government changed its positions on the border throughout April, later supporting the annexation of Ohrid while giving the territory lying directly outside of Ochrid (including the sacred birthplace of Saint Clement) to the Slavic Macedonians.[24] After a period of negotiations Italy's new Balkan borders - including Albania's new borders, were declared by royal decree on 7 June 1941.[25]

After the Italian capitulation in September 1943, the country was occupied by the Germans until the end of the war.


經濟编辑

Upon the occupation of Albania and installation of a new government, the economies of Albania and Italy were connected through a customs union that resulted in the removal of most trade restrictions.[11] Through a tariff union, the Italian tariff system was put in place in Albania.[11] Due to the expected economic losses in Albania from the alteration in tariff policy, the Italian government provided Albania 15 million Albanian leks each year in compensation.[11] Italian customs laws were to apply in Albania and only Italy alone could create treaties with third parties.[11] Italian capital was permitted to be the dominant position in the Albanian economy.[11] As a result, Italian companies were allowed to hold monopolies in the exploitation of Albanian natural resources.[11]

外部链接已修改编辑

各位维基人:

我刚刚修改了阿尔巴尼亚王国 (1939年-1943年)中的2个外部链接,请大家仔细检查我的编辑。如果您有疑问,或者需要让机器人忽略某个链接甚至整个页面,请访问这个简单的FAQ获取更多信息。我进行了以下修改:

有关机器人修正错误的详情请参阅FAQ。

祝编安。—InternetArchiveBot (報告軟件缺陷) 2017年7月25日 (二) 20:23 (UTC)

建議改名:“阿尔巴尼亚王国 (1939年-1943年)”→“阿尔巴尼亚意占时期”编辑

阿尔巴尼亚王国 (1939年-1943年)” → “阿尔巴尼亚意占时期”:对应阿尔巴尼亚德占时期条目----AsharaDayne留言) 2019年6月14日 (五) 08:19 (UTC)

  1. ^ Owen Pearson. Albania in the twentieth century: a history, Volume 3. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: I.B. Taurus Publishers, 2004. Pp. 378, 389.
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Owen Pearson. Albania in the twentieth century: a history, Volume 3. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: I.B. Taurus Publishers, 2004. Pp. 378.
  3. ^ Owen Pearson. Albania in the twentieth century: a history, Volume 3. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: I.B. Taurus Publishers, 2004. Pp. 351.
  4. ^ Owen Pearson. Albania in the twentieth century: a history, Volume 3. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: I.B. Taurus Publishers, 2004. Pp. 389.
  5. ^ Owen Pearson. Albania in the twentieth century: a history, Volume 3. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: I.B. Taurus Publishers, 2004. Pp. 396.
  6. ^ Keegan, John; Churchill, Winston. The Second World War (Six Volume Boxed Set). Boston: Mariner Books. 1986: p314. ISBN 0-395-41685-X. 
  7. ^ Zabecki, David T. World War II in Europe: an encyclopedia. New York: Garland Pub. 1999: p1353. ISBN 0-8240-7029-1. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Kallis, Aristotle A., Fascist ideology: territory and expansionism in Italy and Germany, 1922–1945, Routledge: 132, 2000 
  9. ^ Steiner, Zara S., The lights that failed: European international history, 1919-1933, Oxford University Press: 499, 2005 
  10. ^ Roy Palmer Domenico. Remaking Italy in the twentieth century. Lanham, Maryland, USA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2002. Pp. 74.
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 Raphaël Lemkin. Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. Slark, New Jersey, USA: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd., 2005. Pp. 102.
  12. ^ Lemkin, Raphael; Power, Samantha, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.: 99–107, 2008, ISBN 978-1-58477-901-8 
  13. ^ Owen Pearson. Albania in the Twentieth Century, A History : Volume II: Albania in Occupation and War, 1939–45. London: I. B. Tauris. 2006: p167. ISBN 1-84511-104-4. 
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ Kallis, Aristotle A., Fascist ideology: territory and expansionism in Italy and Germany, 1922–1945, Routledge: 132–133, 2000 
  16. ^ 16.0 16.1 Rodogno., Davide. Fascism's European empire: Italian occupation during the Second World War. Cambridge University Press. 2006: 106. ISBN 0-521-84515-7. 
  17. ^ Fischer, Bernd Jürgen, Albania at War, 1939-1945, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers: 70–73, 1999, ISBN 978-1-85065-531-2 
  18. ^ Fischer, Bernd Jürgen, Albania at War, 1939-1945, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers: 73–79, 1999, ISBN 978-1-85065-531-2 
  19. ^ Danilo Zolo. Invoking humanity: war, law, and global order. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2002. Pp. 24.
  20. ^ Pieter Hidri, General Prenk Pervizi, Tirana, Toena, 2002.
  21. ^ Julian Amery, The sons of the Eagle, London, 1946, s. 302-306
  22. ^ Rodogno., Davide. Fascism's European empire: Italian occupation during the Second World War. Cambridge University Press. 2006: 108. ISBN 0-521-84515-7. 
  23. ^ Davide Rodogno. Fascism's European empire. Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006 Pp. 79.
  24. ^ Davide Rodogno. Fascism's European empire. Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006 Pp. 79.
  25. ^ Davide Rodogno. Fascism's European empire. Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006 Pp. 79.
返回“阿尔巴尼亚意占时期”页面。