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Associated Equipment Company
公司結局 Renamed Associated Commercial Vehicles (ACV) Ltd. Sold
成立 1912
結束 1979
總部 Southall, G London, England
产业 motor vehicles
母公司 Leyland Motor Corporation (1962-1968)
British Leyland Motor Corporation (1968-1975)
British Leyland Ltd (1975-1979)
AEC Regent

AEC是一間已不存在的英國汽車生產商,營運於1912年1979年間,主要生產巴士貨車。AEC的簡稱源自Associated Equipment Company(聯合設備公司),但公司的全稱很少使用,僅使用AECACLO品牌。AEC的產品除了供應本土市場,亦向世界各地出口商用車。

AEC最著名的產品是AEC Routemaster,即被視為倫敦標記的全紅色雙層巴士。

歷史编辑

起初编辑

The London General Omnibus Company, or LGOC, was founded in 1855 to amalgamate and regulate the horse-drawn omnibus services then operating in London. The company began producing motor omnibuses for its own use in 1909 with the X-type at works in Blackhorse Lane, Walthamstow, London. The X-type was followed by the B-type, considered to be one of the first mass-produced commercial vehicles.[1][2]

In 1912 LGOC was taken over by the Underground group of companies, which at that time owned most of the London Underground, and extensive tram operations. As part of the reorganisation following the takeover, a separate concern was set up for the bus manufacturing elements, and was named Associated Equipment Company, or more commonly, AEC.[3]

 
A 1921 AEC S-type Bus at the Heritage Motor Centre

AEC's first commercial vehicle was a lorry based on the X-type bus chassis (  LF 8647). With the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, AEC's ability to produce large numbers of vehicles using assembly line methods became important in supplying the increasing need for army lorries. AEC began large-scale production of the 3-ton Y-type lorry commenced in 1916 and continued beyond the end of the war. From then on AEC became associated with both lorries and buses.

兩次大戰間编辑

In 1926, AEC and Daimler formed the Associated Daimler Company (ADC), which was dissolved two years later. In 1927 AEC moved its manufacturing from Walthamstow to a new plant at Southall in London.

G. J. Rackham was appointed Chief Engineer and Designer in 1928. His ideas contributed significantly to AEC's reputation for quality and reliability.

 
1962-built AEC Mercury

From 1930, AEC produced new models, the names of which all began with "M": Majestic, Mammoth, Mercury, and so on. These original "M-models" continued in production until the end of the Second World War. AEC introduced diesel engines across the range in the mid-1930s.

From 1931 to 1938, AEC and English Electric co-produced trolleybuses. AEC supplied the chassis and EE the electric motors and control equipment.

In 1932, AEC took a controlling interest in the British Four Wheel Drive (FWD) company and began to use more standard AEC components in those vehicles. To avoid confusion, these were marketed under the name Hardy. Production ceased about 1936.

二戰编辑

Non-military production stopped in 1941. During the war AEC produced their 10 ton 4x4 Matador artillery tractor (an adaptation of their commercial 4x2 Matador lorry that exploited AEC's experience with the Hardy FWD venture). A 6x6 version was designated as the AEC Marshall but almost always called the Matador. To this they added the AEC Armoured Car in 1941.

戰後编辑

 
A 1957 AEC Regent V

1946年,AEC與利蘭合組英國聯合牽引公司(British United Traction Ltd,BUT)生產無軌電車及牽引設備予

In 1946, AEC and Leyland formed British United Traction Ltd (BUT) as a joint venture to manufacture trolleybuses and traction equipment for diesel railcars since reduced demand would not require the existing capacity of both parents.

In 1948, AEC resumed civilian production with the Mammoth Major, Matador and Monarch. Also in 1948, AEC acquired Crossley Motors and Maudslay Motor Company. Soon after, AEC changed its name to Associated Commercial Vehicles (ACV) Ltd., although it kept the initials "AEC" on its vehicles. In 1949, ACV acquired a (bus) bodybuilding company, Park Royal Vehicles, along with its subsidiary Charles H. Roe. Park Royal designed a new cab for the AEC Mercury in the mid-1950s; this appeared on all models across the range about this time.

In 1961, AEC acquired Transport Equipment (Thornycroft). Thornycroft's name disappeared from all the vehicles except the specialist airport crash tenders, such as the Nubian, and the "Mighty" Antar off-road tractor unit.

利蘭收購编辑

利蘭(Leyland Motors Ltd) acquired ACV in 1962. AEC lorries were given the same "Ergomatic" cabs used across several Leyland marques (including Albion). In 1968 all AEC double-deckers ceased production, and its last buses and trucks were built in 1979. The AEC name actually disappeared from commercial vehicles in 1977, but the Leyland Marathon was built at the Southall plant until British Leyland (as the parent company was named by then) closed it in 1979.

Foreign operations编辑

ACLO编辑

ACLO (supposed to be the acronym of Associated Company Lorries and Omnibuses) was the brand name used by AEC in Latin American countries, including Brazil, and in Spain (but not in Portugal) to sell all their products.

It seems that there was no clear reason for this badge engineering operation, although a formal request from the German AEG industrial group, which was very active in the Spanish-speaking countries, has been suggested.

ACLOs were specially pervasive in Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. In Spain ACLOs could be seen mainly as double-deck buses in Barcelona and as line coaches in ALSA fleet.

UTIC-AEC编辑

In Portugal, the AEC vehicles, mainly coaches and buses but also lorries, were assembled and bodied by União de Transportadores para Importação e Comércio, UTIC, and marketed under the UTIC-AEC badge, along many years.

After the English-made AECs disappeared from the UK market some very loyal British customers imported made-in-Portugal UTIC-AEC units.

Barreiros AEC编辑

In the late fifties Spanish government restrictions to importations led AEC sales in Spain to became virtually nil. As a consequence AEC approached a Spanish truck manufacturer, Barreiros Diesel, to jointly produce buses and coaches based on AEC designs. The venture started in 1961, used Barreiros AEC as brand name, disregarding ACLO, and seemed very promising; production of AEC off-road dump trucks being planned too. Nevertheless, the Leyland takeover in 1962 soon undermined the agreement, as Leyland was partnering with Barreiros Spanish arch-rival, Pegaso; and eventually Barreiros looked for another collaborator in the bus arena, signing in 1967 an agreement with Belgian Van Hool.

Products编辑

 
A preserved AEC Renown, previously run by King Alfred Motor Services.

Buses编辑

See List of AEC buses

Lorries and other commercial vehicles编辑

Majestic

The 6-ton normal-control AEC Majestic (Model 666) was introduced in 1930.   tankers

Mammoth

The AEC Mammoth dates from the 1930s. This was a 7/8-ton lorry with a six-cylinder overhead valve engine deloping 110 bhp on a wheelbase of 16 ft 7 in. VE 6580

Later a distinction was made between the Mammoth Minor (6x2, with two rear axles), the Mammoth Major 6 (6x4) and the Mammoth Major 8 (8x4), which appeared in 1934. The Mammoth Major Mk II was introduced in 1935; the eight-wheeler could carry 15-ton loads. It remained in production until 1948 when it was superseded by the Mk III, which was mechanically similar but had the Park Royal cab.

Mandator

The AEC Mandator dates from the 1930s. The post-war Mk II was available as a lorry and a tractor unit and the name was used for tractor units built from the 1950s to the 1970s.   GY 9542

Marshall

See also: Matador

1960s-70s.   FFW 808D

Matador

The original AEC Matador 5-ton 4x2 commercial lorry was introduced in 1932. The name was most famously used for AEC's 4x4 Matador artillery tractor, which were known by the nickname "Mat". These vehicles exploited AEC's experience with four-wheel drive that it had gained from its involvement in the British Four Wheel Drive vehicles marketed under the name Hardy.

The Matador name is very often used for the 6x4 military vehicles that are more properly designated the AEC Marshall.

AEC produced 9,620 artillery tractors; 514 6x4 bowsers for the RAF; 192 6x4 lorries (some of which had Coles Cranes mounted); and 185 similar vehicles for mobile oxygen plants. Many military Matadors were adapted for post-war commercial use, especially as timber lorries and recovery vehicles.   AHO 881R DFP 472 another Marshall bowser

New civilian Matadors appeared after the war.   ATP 615 Forward-control variant

Mercury

The AEC Mercury (Model 440) was first built in 1928. This was a forward-control lorry with a wheelbase of 14 ft for 4-ton payloads. The Model 640 was introduced in 1930, with a four-cylinder petrol engine developing 65 bhp.   Pratts (1930)

The name was resurrected for lorries built from the 1950s to the 1970s.   184 BPD(1956) XYP 257 (1961)

Militant

The AEC Militant - or "Milly" - was the 1952 replacement for the Matador, and continued in various forms until the 1970s. (The original Militant had been produced by Maudslay in the 1930s.)   WOT 428H

Mogul

The AEC Mogul was a normal-control tractor unit from the 1960s. The name had originally been used on Maudslay lorries.

Monarch

The original AEC Monarch was built from 1931 to 1939 at AEC's Southall works. The first version (Model 641) was superseded by the Mk II (Model 637) in 1933, with payload increased to 7½ tons. The Monarch was fitted with either an 85 hp four-cylinder 5.1 litre diesel engine or an 80 hp four-cylinder 5.1 litre petrol engine. This was a robust and well-designed lorry popular with both drivers and operators. Later variants continued into the 1970s.   TL 3513 (1934) normal-control tippers KYE 402 (1949)

Mustang

1950s beer tanker

Model 201

  Robey (1925)

Model 428

  HMV

Model 501 & 506

  refrigerated van Main

Model 701

  TW 612 (artic)

Y Type

AEC's first purpose-built commercial vehicle was introduced in 1916. The improved YA Type appeared in 1917. More than ten thousand of these vehicles were supplied to the War Department by 1919. Many of these were acquired by civilian operators following the war. YB and YC Types continued in production until 1921.   Osram Lamps

Railcar engines编辑

See GWR railcars and British Rail British United Traction

References编辑

  1. ^ From omnibus to ecobus, 1829-1850. London's Transport Museum. [July 3].  已忽略未知参数|accessyear= (帮助);
  2. ^ From omnibus to ecobus, 1919-1938, 4th page. London's Transport Museum. [July 3].  已忽略未知参数|accessyear= (帮助);
  3. ^ From omnibus to ecobus, 1919-1938, 3rd page. London's Transport Museum. [July 3].  已忽略未知参数|accessyear= (帮助);

See also编辑

External links编辑