User:Jyyihch/沙盒

解析失败 (未知函数“\bzdrv”): {\displaystyle \ce{ \bzdrv{1==DDH;5==CH$_{3}$;4==OC$_{16}$H$_{33}$;% 2==\ryl(4==NH--SO$_{2}$){4==\bzdrh{1==(yl);2==OCH$_{2}$CH$_{2}$OCH$_{3}$;% 5==\ryl(2==NH--SO$_{2}$){4==\bzdrh{1==(yl);% 5==\ryl(2==SO$_{2}$--NH){4==\naphdrh{1==(yl);5==OH;% 8==\lyl(4==N=N){4==\bzdrh{4==(yl);1==NO$_{2}$;5==SO$_{2}$CH$_{3}$}}}}}}}}} }}

1-Naphthaleneacetic acid
IUPAC名
2-(1-Naphthyl)acetic acid
别名 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid
α-Naphthaleneacetic acid
Naphthylacetic acid
NAA
识别
CAS号 [1] 86-87-3[1]
SMILES
性质
化学式 C12H10O2[2]
摩尔质量 186.2066 g/mol[2] g·mol⁻¹
外观 White powder
熔点 135 °C
溶解性 0.38 g/L (17 °C)
pKa 4.24 (25 °C)[3]
危险性
MSDS External MSDS
相关物质
相关化学品 Auxins
Indole-3-acetic acid
若非注明,所有数据均出自一般条件(25 ℃,100 kPa)下。

1-萘乙酸 (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid),簡稱NAA,是一種有機化合物(化學式:C10H7CH2CO2H)是一種易溶於有機溶劑的無色固體。 它的構造為萘的第一位置以羧甲基取代。 它是一種植物激素生根劑,常用於商用的發根粉或發根劑中,在植物使用扦插法繁殖時使用。 它也可用於植物組織培養[4]

參見编辑

參考文獻编辑

家八哥
Acridotheres tristis1.jpg
保护状况
科學分類
界: 動物界
門: 脊索動物門
綱: 鳥綱
目: 雀形目
科: 椋鳥科
屬: 八哥屬
種: 家八哥
二名法
Acridotheres tristis
(Linnaeus, 1766)
Juvenile crying for food from Adult in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Bathing- different moodsIn Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Immature in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

家八哥八哥屬的鳥類,又稱為印度八哥,能模仿人類說話,為亞洲熱帶地區常見的留鳥自阿富汗印度斯里蘭卡均是牠們的原始棲地。

現在家八哥的領域已大為擴張,包括 東南亞地區、南非, 以色列, 夏威夷, 北美洲 (特別是南佛羅里達州),澳洲紐西蘭 以及 阿拉伯聯合大公國

這種為數眾多的雀鳥常見於開放的林地、耕地和住家附近。在樹或牆壁的洞裡築巢。一窩通常生4-6 個蛋。

雖然這是一種極能適應環境的物種,但大在新加坡和馬來西亞由於競爭爪哇八哥競爭,數量愈來愈少[1]

這隻25cm長的鳥有黑褐色身體和翼,在飛行中則可見明顯大塊白色翼補釘。頭和喉頭是黑暗的灰色。喙、光禿的皮膚在眼睛附近和強壯的腿是明亮的黃色。性別外型相似。成對生活。

像多數椋鳥一樣,家八哥是雜食性的。牠的食物包括昆蟲、果子和人類廚餘。 牠在地面草中搜尋昆蟲,特別是為螞蚱, 故又有俗名稱為螞蚱獵人(Acridotheres)。在地面糸雨口言 常用行走的方式,偶爾跳躍。

叫聲包括呱呱叫,尖聲,唧啾叫,點鳴和哨聲。當牠在鳴叫時,常浮動它的羽毛和頭部。在掠食性動物接近時,家八哥使用尖叫來警告牠的夥伴或其它鳥類。因為牠們唱歌和講話的能力,常被作為寵物飼養。

In Australia编辑

In Australia, the Common Myna is considered to be an invasive pest. It has been voted one of the 100 most unpopular species.[1].

Mynas cause dangerous competition for nesting space used by native birds:

  • They will evict other birds from nests (throwing the young or eggs out and attacking the parents).
  • Unlike most native species, will only use a nest once before moving for the next breeding cycle.[來源請求]
  • Native birds will not use a nest space previously inhabited by the Myna.[來源請求]
  • Nesting space is often very limited particularly in urban areas where native habitat is disappearing.

The invasion of Mynas has coincided with the disappearance of many native birds.[來源請求]

Gallery编辑

References编辑

  • BirdLife International. Acridotheres tristis. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004. [12 May 2006].  Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern
  • Feare, Chris; Craig, Adrian. Starlings and Mynas. Princeton University Press. 1999. ISBN 978-0-7136-3961-2. 
  • Grimmett, Inskipp and Inskipp, Birds of India ISBN 978-0-691-04910-6
  • Pell, A.S. & Tidemann, C.R. (1997) "The impact of two exotic hollow-nesting birds on two native parrots in savannah and woodland in eastern Australia", Biological Conservation, 79, 145-153. A study showing native birds being excluded from up to 80% of nesting sites in Canberra, Australia.

External links编辑

Further reading编辑

  1. ^ Bird Ecology Study Group, Nature Society (Singapore): <http://besgroup.blogspot.com/2005/12/ubiquitous-javan-myna.html>. Accessed 25 Oct 2007

Book编辑

  • Kannan, R., and D. A. James. 2001. Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis). In The Birds of North America, No. 583 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Thesis编辑

  • Tunhikorn S. Ph.D. (1989). Resource partitioning of four sympatric mynas and starlings (Sturnidae) in Thailand. Oregon State University, United States -- Oregon.

Articles编辑

  • Baker AJ & Moeed A. (1979). Evolution in the Introduced New-Zealand Populations of the Common Myna Acridotheres-Tristis Aves Sturnidae. Canadian Journal of Zoology. vol 57, no 3. p. 570-584.
  • Baker AJ & Moeed A. (1980). MORPHOMETRIC VARIATION IN INDIAN SAMPLES OF THE COMMON MYNA, ACRIDOTHERES-TRISTIS (AVES, STURNIDAE). Bijdragen Tot De Dierkunde. vol 50, no 2. p. 351-363.
  • Baker AJ & Moeed A. (1987). RAPID GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION AND FOUNDER EFFECT IN COLONIZING POPULATIONS OF COMMON MYNAS (ACRIDOTHERES-TRISTIS). Evolution. vol 41, no 3. p. 525-538.
  • Bharucha EK. (1989). Common Myna as a Campfollower of Lesser Whistling Teals. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. vol 86, no 3.
  • Bilgin CC. (1996). First record of the common myna (Acridotheres tristis) from Ankara, Turkey. Zoology in the Middle East. vol 13, no 0. p. 25-26.
  • Bilqees FM, Khatoon N & Haseeb MF. (2004). Neoechinorhynchotaenia sindhensis N. gen., N. sp. from the bird Acridotheres tristis of Sindh, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. vol 36, no 3. p. 207-209.
  • Chandra S, Agarwal GP & Saxena AK. (1988). Seasonal Changes in the Population of Mallophaga on Acridotheres-Tristis. Angewandte Parasitologie. vol 29, no 4. p. 244-249.
  • Chandra S, Agarwal GP & Saxena AK. (1989). Distribution of Mallophaga on the Body of Acridotheres-Tristis Aves. Angewandte Parasitologie. vol 30, no 1. p. 39-42.
  • Chandra S, Agarwal GP, Singh SPN & Saxena AK. (1990). Seasonal Changes in a Population of Menacanthus-Eurysternus Mallophaga Amblycera on the Common Myna Acridotheres-Tristis. International Journal for Parasitology. vol 20, no 8. p. 1063-1066.
  • Chaturvedi CM & Thapliyal JP. (1979). Comparative Study of Adrenal Cycles in 3 Species of Indian Birds Athene-Brama Acridotheres-Tristis and Coturnix-Coturnix. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. vol 17, no 10. p. 1049-1052.
  • Chauhan RB, Parasharya BM & Yadav DN. (1998). The food of nestlings of Indian Myna acridotheres tristis. In Dhindsa, M S [Editor], Rao, P S [Editor], Parasharya, B M [Editor] Birds in agricultural ecosystem 138-148, 1998. Society for Applied Ornithology (India) {a}, A. P. Agricultural University, Rajendranagar 500 030, India.
  • Choudhury A. (1998). Common myna feeding a fledgling koel. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. vol 95, no 1.
  • Crisp H & Lill A. (2006). City slickers: Habitat use and foraging in urban Common Mynas Acridotheres tristis. Corella. vol 30, no 1. p. 9-15.
  • Davidar ERC. (1991). 14. Common Myna Acridotheres-Tristis Linn. Fishing. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. vol 88, no 2.
  • Dhanda SK & Dhindsa MS. (1993). Eviction of ring dove, Streptopelia decaocto, from a nest box by common myna, Acridotheres tristis. Pavo. vol 31, no 1-2. p. 35-38.
  • Dhanda SK & Dhindsa MS. (1996). Breeding performance of Indian Myna Acridotheres tristis in nestboxes and natural sites. Ibis. vol 138, no 4. p. 788-791.
  • Dhanda SK & Dhindsa MS. (1996). Intraspecific brood parasitism in the common myna Acridotheres tristis (Linn.). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. vol 93, no 1. p. 91-93.
  • Dhanda SK & Dhindsa MS. (1998). Breeding ecology of common myna Acridotheres tristis with special reference to the effect of season and habitat on reproductive variables. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. vol 95, no 1. p. 43-56.
  • Fitzsimons JA. (2006). Anti-predator aggression in the Common Myna Acridotheres tristis. Australian Field Ornithology vol 23, p. 202-205.
  • Fleischer RC, Williams RN & Baker AJ. (1991). Genetic Variation within and among Populations of the Common Myna Acridotheres-Tristis in Hawaii USA. Journal of Heredity. vol 82, no 3. p. 205-208.
  • Gibson AR, Baker AJ & Moeed A. (1984). Morphometric Variation in Introduced Populations of the Common Myna Acridotheres-Tristis an Application of the Jackknife to Principal Component Analysis. Systematic Zoology. vol 33, no 4. p. 408-421.
  • Greig-Smith P. (1982). Behavior of Birds Entering and Leaving Communal Roosts of Madagascar Fodies Foudia-Madagascariensis and Indian Mynahs Acridotheres-Tristis. Ibis. vol 124, no 4. p. 529-534.
  • Gupta RC & Goel P. (1994). On the roosting behaviour of Bank myna, common myna and pied myna. Geobios. vol 21, no 2. p. 93-100.
  • Hermes N. (1986). A Census of the Common Mynah Acridotheres-Tristis Along an Axis of Dispersal. Corella. vol 10, no 2. p. 55-57.
  • Homan P. (2000). Excluding the Common Myna Acridotheres tristis from artificial nest boxes using a baffle. Victorian Naturalist. vol 117, no 2.
  • Hone J. (1978). Introduction and Spread of the Common Myna Acridotheres-Tristis in New-South-Wales Australia. Emu. vol 78, no 4. p. 227-230.
  • Ishtiaq F, Beadell JS, Baker AJ, Rahmani AR, Jhala YV & Fleischer RC. (2006). Prevalence and evolutionary relationships of haematozoan parasites in native versus introduced populations of common myna Acridotheres tristis. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences Series B. vol 273, no 1586. p. 587-594.
  • Jadhav BV & Dandawate RR. (2004). A new species of the genus Lapwingia (Singh 1952) from Acridotheres tristis at Aurangabad, India. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology. vol 24, no 2. p. 209-211.
  • Kumar A, Kumar B, Arora MP, Kumar S & Tyagi R. (2004). Effect of environmental factors on annual reproductive cycle of female common myna Acridotheres tristis. Journal of Experimental Zoology India. vol 7, no 2. p. 313-318.
  • Mahabal A. (1993). Activity-time budget of Indian myna Acridotheres tristis (Linnaeus) during the breeding season. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. vol 90, no 1. p. 96-97.
  • Mahabal A. (1993). Communal display behaviour of Indian myna, Acridotheres tristis (Linnaeus). Pavo. vol 31, no 1-2. p. 45-54.
  • Mahabal A. (1997). Communal roosting in common mynas Acridotheres tristis and its functional significance. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. vol 94, no 2. p. 342-349.
  • Mahabal A, Bastawade DB & Vaidya VG. (1990). Spatial and Temporal Fluctuations in the Populations of Common Myna Acridotheres-Tristis Linnaeus in and around an Indian City. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. vol 87, no 3. p. 392-398.
  • Mahabal A & Bastawde DB. (1991). Mixed roosting associates of Indian Myna Acridotheres tristis in Pune City, India. Pavo. vol 29, no 1-2. p. 23-32.
  • Mahabal A & Vaidya VG. (1989). Diurnal Rhythms and Seasonal Changes in the Roosting Behavior of Indian Myna Acridotheres-Tristis Linnaeus. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences Animal Sciences. vol 98, no 3. p. 199-210.
  • Malhi CS. (1987). Hoarding Behavior in Common Myna Acridotheres-Tristis. Zeitschrift fuer Angewandte Zoologie. vol 74, no 2. p. 247-248.
  • Mallick B & Sarkar AK. (1982). Observation on Cadmium Damage in Ovary of Common Myna Acridotheres-Tristis. Proceedings of the Zoological Society. vol 35, no 1-2. p. 23-26.
  • Martin WK. (1996). The current and potential distribution of the common myna Acridotheres tristis in Australia. Emu. vol 96, p. 166-173.
  • Pawar SB & Shinde GB. (2003). A new species Valipora kallamensis n.sp. (Cestoda: Dilepididae) from Acridotheres tristis at Kallam, India. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology. vol 23, no 2. p. 167-169.
  • Pell AS & Tidemann CR. (1997). The ecology of the Common Myna in urban nature reserves in the Australian Capital Territory. Emu. vol 97, p. 141-149.
  • Rahman MK & Husain KZ. (1988). Notes on the Breeding Record of the Common Myna Acridotheres-Tristis-Tristis Linnaeus. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology. vol 16, no 2. p. 155-158.
  • Salunkhe PS. (1999). Albino myna (Acridotheres tristis) near Vita, in Maharashtra. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. vol 96, no 3.
  • Sengupta S. (1976). Food and Feeding Ecology of the Common Myna Acridotheres-Tristis. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy Part B Biological Sciences. vol 42, no 6. p. 338-345.
  • Sood ML & Dang HR. (1978). Diplotriaena-Bhamoensis a Nematode Infection in Acridotheres-Tristis and Acridotheres-Ginginianus. Rivista di Parassitologia. vol 39, no 2-3. p. 113-116.
  • Srivastava R, Kumar S, Gupta N, Singh SK & Saxena AK. (2003). Path coefficient analysis of correlation between breeding cycles of the common myna Acridotheres tristis (Passeriformes: Sturnidae) and its phthirapteran ectoparasites. Folia Parasitologica. vol 50, no 4. p. 315-316.
  • Telecky TM. (1988). Multiple Parentage in the Permanently Monogamous Common Myna Acridotheres-Tristis. Pacific Science. vol 42, no 1-2. p. 133-134.
  • Toor HS & Dhindsa MS. (1980). A New Nesting Site of Common Myna Acridotheres-Tristis in the Punjab India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. vol 77, no 2. p. 329-330.
  • Uniyal DP. (2004). A note on behavioural observation of Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta) and Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis). Indian Forester. vol 130, no 4. p. 469-470.


Wiki 格式编辑

TracGuideToc

Wiki 是 Trac 的主要特色之一。它高度整合 Trac 中的其他部份,使整個 Trac 變得強大,以及很有彈性。

Trac 內建了一個 wiki 引擎。本 wiki 引擎實做一部分目前持續發展且很受歡迎的 Wiki, 尤其是 MoinMoin

本頁面展示並說明本 wiki 的格式語法。

字體風格编辑

有支援的字體風格如下:

 * '''粗體''', '''!'''也可以變粗體''', 和 '''! '''
 * ''斜體''
 * '''''粗斜體'''''
 * __底線__
 * {{{印刷體}}} 或 `印刷體`
 * ~~刪除線~~
 * ^上標^ 
 * ,,下標,,
 

顯示:

* 粗體, !也可以變粗體, 和 ! 
* 斜體
* 粗斜體
* __底線__
* {{{印刷體}}} 或 `印刷體`
* ~~刪除線~~
* ^上標^ 
* ,,下標,,

注意:

* `{{{...}}}` 和 {{{`...`}}} 不僅顯示印刷體,而且不套用 wiki 格式,顯示其原始內容。
* {{{ ! }}} 告訴 wiki 解析器下一個字不要套用 wiki 格式,所以請注意在 ! 後放空白字元的情況,例如:編輯粗體的情況。

標題编辑

想要建立標題可以在一行開始時,用一到五個等於符號("=")再加一個空白字元後,加上標題文字,緊接文字後加一空白和前面一樣多的=符號。你可以選擇要不要給標題一個明確的 id ,若是沒有加上,系統自動會為它產生一個 id。注意: id 不能使用中文。

例子:

 = 標題 =
 == 次標題 ==
 === 有關''這個'' ===
 === 明確 id === #heading-id
 

顯示:

標題编辑

次標題编辑

有關這個编辑

=== 明確 id === #heading-id

段落编辑

當一段文字當中插入一至數行空白行時,新的段落就會產生。

也可以強迫斷行,如下:

 我是行 1<BR/>我是行 2
 

顯示:

我是行 1
我是行 2

列舉(list)编辑

本 wiki 提供有序(數字)列舉和無序列舉。

例如:

 * 項目 1
   * 項目 1.1
 * 項目 2

 1. 項目 1
   a. 項目 1.a
   a. 項目 1.b
      i. 項目 1.b.i
      i. 項目 1.b.ii
 1. 項目 2
 有序列舉也可以直接指定數字:
 3. 項目 3
 

顯示:

  • 項目 1
  • 項目 1.1
  • 項目 2
1. 項目 1
a. 項目 1.a
a. 項目 1.b
i. 項目 1.b.i
i. 項目 1.b.ii
  1. 項目 1
    1. 項目 1.a
    2. 項目 1.b
      1. 項目 1.b.i
      2. 項目 1.b.ii
1. 項目 2
有序列舉也可以直接指定數字:
3. 項目 3

注意在列舉符號(*, 1)之前一定要有一或多個空白字元,不然會被視為一般段落。

有定義列舉编辑

本 wiki 也支援有定義列舉

例如:

 llama::
   some kind of mammal, with hair
 ppython::
   some kind of reptile, without hair
   (can you spot the typo?)
 中文::
   中文內容。
 

顯示: llama::

  some kind of mammal, with hair

ppython::

  some kind of reptile, without hair
  (can you spot the typo?)

中文::

  中文內容。

注意,你定義標題的前面需要一個空白字元。

原有格式文字编辑

在顯示的區塊中,放入原有格式的文字內容適合來表示原始碼片段、註記,以及例子。使用連續三個大括號,包含住文字即可。前後連續三個大括號都要獨立成一行。

例如: {{{

{{{
 def HelloWorld():
     print "Hello World"
}}}

}}}

顯示: {{{

def HelloWorld():
    print "Hello World"

}}}


區塊註記编辑

為了將一段落標記為區塊註記,在首行前加上二個空白字元。

例如:

  This text is a quote from someone else.
 

顯示:

 This text is a quote from someone else.

回覆引言编辑

一個進行中的討論串,為了標示被回覆的引言,使用類似 email 方式的標示(">", ">>", 等等)。

例如:

 >> 某人原始的討論
 > 其他人的回覆
 我的回覆
 

顯示: >> 某人原始的討論 > 其他人的回覆 我的回覆

注意: 一些 WikiFormatting 元素,像是列舉和原始格式文字,是不會在引言格式中作用。一些重新再格式文字使得引言變得清楚可能是必要的。

表格编辑

簡單的表格可以如下表示:

 ||Cell 1||Cell 2||Cell 3||
 ||Cell 4||Cell 5||Cell 6||
 

顯示: ||Cell 1||Cell 2||Cell 3|| ||Cell 4||Cell 5||Cell 6||

如果想要建立更複雜的表格請看[wiki:WikiRestructuredText#BiggerReSTExample reStructuredText].

連結编辑

使用 WikiPageNames 和 URLs 會自動建立超連結。不想 !WikiPageLinks 變成超連結,可以在 !WikiPageLinks 前加個 "!" ,例如 {{{!WikiPageLink}}}。

例子:

 TitleIndex, http://www.edgewall.com/, !NotAlink
 

顯示:

TitleIndex, http://www.edgewall.com/, !NotAlink

在連結之後緊接一個空白,再接上可讀性高的文字,用中括號包起來,那顯示的連結將以後者代替原來的連結。如果沒有可讀性高的文字,就不會顯示 "wiki:" ,而顯示 "wiki:" 後的文字,而外部連結會顯示所有的文字。這個規則就不受限於 WikiPageNames 的規定,想用甚麼文字當 wiki 頁面的名字都可以,但還是建議使用英文字。

例如:

</nowiki>
* Edgewall Software
* [wiki:TitleIndex Title Index]
* [wiki:ISO9000]
</nowiki>

顯示:

圖片编辑

以 `.png`, `.gif` or `.jpg` 為結尾的 Urls 不再自動解析為圖片的連結,和加入'<img>'標籤。

你必須使用 !Image 巨集(看下面'巨集'解釋)。

巨集编辑

巨集是動態地把內容插入頁面的客製函式

例如: {{{

Timestamp

}}}

顯示:

Timestamp

請看 WikiMacros 獲得更多的資訊,以及內建的巨集。


其他编辑

四個或更多的短橫線會變成分隔線(


例如:

 ----
 

顯示:




參考: TracLinks, TracGuide, WikiHtml, WikiMacros, WikiProcessors, TracSyntaxColoring.