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艾德溫·史密斯紙草文稿(約西元前17世記) 的第6,7頁,是相當早期的醫學指南

醫學指南(medical guidelines)也稱為臨床指南(clinical guideline)或是臨床實踐指南 (clinical practice guideline) ,是目的在提供醫療決策及準則指南的文件,會針對醫療保健特定領域中的診斷、管理及治療進行說明。在医学史中,幾千年前就有類似醫學指南的文件,不過以往的醫學指南是以傳統或是權威為基礎,現代的醫學指南是依循证医学的范式,以現有實證的检查為基礎[1][2][3]。醫學指南一般會包括經過整理醫學共識英语Medical consensus或是醫療保健上的最佳實踐。醫療保健人員必須瞭解其專業科別中的醫學指南,在個別治療時則需依個別情形,決定是否依照醫學指南的建議進行[4]

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現代的醫學指南會針對預防診斷预后、治療(包括藥品劑量、風險效益英语risk-benefit analysis成本及有效性英语cost-effectiveness等),識別、整理、評估最高水準的實證以及最新的資料。之後定義有關此臨床實務最重要的一些問題,並且找出所有可能的决策結果英语upside outcomes。有些指南會包括決策或是計算的演算法英语Medical algorithm,因此將臨床的決策點以及各自的行動方針和臨床決策及醫療人員的經驗整合起來。許多指南會將可用的治療方式進行歸類,協助醫療人員決定要用哪一種治療方式。

醫學指南的另一個目的是為了醫療的标准化、提昇醫療品質、降低各種風險(包括對病患的風險、對醫療從業者的風險、對醫療保險及健康計劃的風險等) ,在成本以及醫療相關參數(如有效性靈敏度和特異度等)之間取得最好的平衡。經過許多實證證明,醫療機構(例如醫院)的醫療人員使用醫學指南,是有效達到上述目的的方式之一。

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