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併合(incorporation)為語言學語法類別上的一種現象,諸如動詞與其賓語(賓語併合)或副詞修飾語所形成的合成词;同時保留其原始的語法功能。其中包含名詞修飾動詞,併縮小其詞義涵蓋範圍,而不是引用特定的語詞實體來進行此類功能。而併合與黏著法構詞(agglutination)有基本上的不同;併合主要以及物性(transitivity)與配價(verb valency)構成為主;而黏著法構詞可以是數名詞或名詞形容詞等而合成一單詞(合成詞),或者及物性及配價所構成亦可。

併合是多式综合语的核心,例如在北美、西伯利亞,以及北澳大利亞等之語言裡都可以發現此類語法現象。 然而,多式綜合功能並不一定意味著有併合的功能(Mithun 2009);而且這些併合表現的語言也不意味著該語言有多式綜合的功能。

併合範例编辑

英語编辑

奧內達語编辑

帕內爾語编辑

楚科奇語编辑

科里亞克語编辑

莫霍克語编辑

夏安語编辑

中文编辑

名詞併合的語義编辑

歷時觀點的併合编辑

參見编辑

註釋编辑

參考文獻编辑

  • Baker, Mark C. (1996). The Polysynthesis Parameter. New York [etc.]: Oxford University Press.
  • Baker, Mark C. (1988) Incorporation: a theory of grammatical function changing. Chicago:. University of Chicago Press.
  • Evans, Nicholas & Hans-Jürgen Sasse (eds.). (2002). Problems of Polysynthesis. Berlin : Akademie Verlag.
  • Kroeber, Alfred L. (1909). Noun incorporation in American languages. In F. Heger (Ed.), XVI Internationaler Amerikanisten-Kongress (pp. 569–576). Vienna: Hartleben.
  • Kroeber, Alfred L. (1911). Incorporation as a linguistic process. American Anthropologist, 13 (4), 577-584.
  • Jacques, Guillaume. From Denominal Derivation to Incorporation. Lingua. 2012, 122 (11): 1027–1231. doi:10.1016/j.lingua.2012.05.010. [1]
  • Massam, Diane. (2001). Pseudo noun incorporation in Niuean. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 19 (1), 153-197.
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1984). The evolution of noun incorporation. Language, 60 (4), 847-895. [2]
  • Mithun, M. (1985). Diachronic morphologization: The circumstances surrounding the birth, growth, and decline of noun incorporation. Papers from the Sixth International Conference on Historical Linguistics. Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 6. Jacek Fisiak, ed. Amsterdam-Poznan: John Benjamins-Adam Mickiewicz University, 365-394.
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1986). On the nature of noun incorporation. Language, 62 (1), 32-38. [3]
  • Mithun, Marianne. (2009) Polysynthesis in the arctic. In: Mahieu, M.-A., Tersis, N. (Eds.), Variations on Polysynthesis, The Eskaleut Languages. Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp. 3–18. [4]
  • Mattissen, Johanna. (2006) The ontology and diachrony of polysynthesis. In: Wunderlich, D. (Ed.), Advances in the Theory of the Lexicon. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin/New York, pp. 287–354.
  • Payne, Thomas E. Describing Morphosyntax, Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-521-58805-7
  • Rosen, Sara T. (1989). Two types of noun incorporation: A lexical analysis. Language, 65 (2), 294-317.
  • Sadock, Jerrold M. (1980). Noun incorporation in Greenlandic: A case of syntactic word-formation. Language, 57 (2), 300-319.
  • Sadock, Jerrold M. (1986). Some notes on noun incorporation. Language, 62 (1), 19-31.
  • Sapir, Edward. (1911). The problem of noun incorporation in American languages. American Anthropologist, 13 (2), 250-282.
  • Van Valin, Robert D. & Randy LaPolla. (1997). Syntax: Structure, meaning and function. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

範例及文本參考出處编辑

外部連接编辑