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单倍群D-CTS3946(英語:Haplogroup D-CTS3946)是人类Y染色体DNA单倍群之一,源于单倍群DE

单倍群Haplogroup D-CTS3946
Haplogrupo D (ADN-Y).png
起源时间 大约63,000到81,000年前[1]
起源地 非洲[1]
上游单倍群 DE
下游单倍群 D-M174、D-A5580.2
对应突变 CT3946, CTS4030/Z1605

起源与分布编辑

单倍群D于距今约7.3万年前首次出现于非洲[1] 其与单倍群E同样源于M168突变的基础上产生的YAP突变。

单倍群D主要在藏族日本阿伊努人安达曼人中高频分布,此外也见于其他东亚东南亚中亚人群。该单倍群的主要支系包括D-M15、D-P47、D-M64.1等。其中,M15主要见于藏族、瑶族彝族等人群[2][3][4][5][6],P47常见于藏族、纳西族普米族、普米藏族等[2],而M64.1(M55)则为日本所特有,包括阿伊努族大和族琉球族等。[7][8]

系统树编辑

以下系统树基于ISOGG 2019年8月24日版本(ver.14.151)[9]


人类Y染色体DNA单倍型类群进化树

Y染色体最近共同祖先
A
A1b A1a-T
A1a A2-T
A2 A3 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
G H IJK
IJ K
I J LT K(xLT)
L T M NO P S
O N Q R

各族群Y染色体单倍型类群 · 著名的Y染色體單倍型類群人

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Thomas, Mark G.; Yang, Huanming; Arciero, Elena; Asan; Connell, Bruce A.; Jones, Abigail L.; Haber, Marc. A Rare Deep-Rooting D0 African Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup and Its Implications for the Expansion of Modern Humans out of Africa. Genetics. 2019-06-13: genetics.302368.2019. ISSN 0016-6731. PMID 31196864. doi:10.1534/genetics.119.302368 (英语). 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 引用错误:没有为名为Shi2008的参考文献提供内容
  3. ^ Xue, Y.; Zerjal, T; Bao, W; Zhu, S; Shu, Q; Xu, J; Du, R; Fu, S; 等. Male Demography in East Asia: A North-South Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times. Genetics. 2005, 172 (4): 2431–9. PMC 1456369. PMID 16489223. doi:10.1534/genetics.105.054270. 
  4. ^ Wang, Chuan-Chao, Ling-Xiang Wang, Rukesh Shrestha, Manfei Zhang, Xiu-Yuan Huang, Kang Hu, Li Jin, and Hui Li. "Genetic Structure of Qiangic Populations Residing in the Western Sichuan Corridor." PloS one,2014 9(8): e103772.
  5. ^ Wen Bo; Xie Xuanhua; Gao Song; 等. Analyses of Genetic Structure of Tibeto-Burman Populations Reveals Sex-Biased Admixture in Southern Tibeto-Burmans. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2004, 74 (856–865): 2004. PMC 1181980. PMID 15042512. doi:10.1086/386292. 
  6. ^ Cai, X; Qin, Z; Wen, B; Xu, S; Wang, Y; 等. Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y Chromosomes. PLoS ONE. 2011, 6 (8): e24282. PMC 3164178. PMID 21904623. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024282. 
  7. ^ Tajima, Atsushi; 等. Genetic origins of the Ainu inferred from combined DNA analyses of maternal and paternal lineages. Journal of Human Genetics. 2004, 49 (4): 187–193. PMID 14997363. doi:10.1007/s10038-004-0131-x. 
  8. ^ YOUICHI SATO, TOSHIKATSU SHINKA, ASHRAF A. EWIS, AIKO YAMAUCHI, TERUAKI IWAMOTO, YUTAKA NAKAHORI Overview of genetic variation in the Y chromosome of modern Japanese males.
  9. ^ Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2019
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 Hammer MF, Karafet TM, Park H et al. (2006). "Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes". J. Hum. Genet. 51 (1): 47–58. doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0. PMID 16328082.
  11. ^ https://www.yfull.com/tree/D/.  已忽略未知参数|consulté le=(建议使用|access-date=) (帮助); 已忽略未知参数|titre=(建议使用|title=) (帮助); 已忽略未知参数|site= (帮助); 缺少或|title=为空 (帮助)
  12. ^ Y-DNA Haplogroup D and its Subclades - 2014
  13. ^ Estes, Roberta. Exciting New Y DNA Haplogroup D Discoveries!. DNAeXplained - Genetic Genealogy. 2019-06-21 [2019-07-08] (美国英语).