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单倍群C-M130(英語:Haplogroup C-M130)是人类Y染色体DNA单倍群之一,与单倍群F同为单倍群CF的两个支系之一。

单倍群C
Geographic distributions of Y chromosome haplogroups C in East Asia.png
东亚地区的单倍群C频率分布图[1]
起源时间 距今约53,000年[2]
起源地 亚洲
上游单倍群 CF
下游单倍群 C1 F3393/Z1426(原名CxC3、C2(原名C3*)M217[3]
对应突变 M130/RPS4Y711、P184、P255、P260

起源与分布编辑

单倍群C大约于距今6万年前出现,应在M168突变发生后不久。现今该单倍群广泛分布于东南亚中亚西伯利亚美洲大洋洲的原始族群这中,其两个主要支系为C-F3393(C1)与C-M217(C2)。

单倍群C1,也称为C-F3393,是C单倍群的两个重要分支之一。C1则分为C1a和C1b两支,C1a则又分为两支C1a1(C-M8)和C1a2。C1b在大洋洲和亚洲的部分地区很常见,反之C1a在世界范围内是极其罕见的,主要是分布在日本(C1a1)或欧洲,以及在旧石器时代的欧洲人中有发现。在尼泊尔、韩国济州岛(C1a1)、亚美尼亚人、卡拜尔人(Kabyle,生活在阿尔及利亚、突尼斯和摩洛哥等地的柏柏尔人之一) 以及中国辽宁的人群中都只发现过单个样本(C1a1)。

而C-M217是单倍群C分布最广的支系,其起源于东南亚/中亚,此后从东至西已从中欧土耳其遍及至美洲的哥伦比亚委内瑞拉瓦尤人,从北向南则从阿拉斯加阿撒巴斯卡人一直到马来群岛都有出现,尤其在布里亚特族达斡尔族哈扎拉族伊捷尔缅族卡尔梅克族科里亚克族满族蒙古族哈薩克族鄂伦春族鄂溫克族锡伯族中呈高频分布。[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]

系统树编辑

C* (M130/Page51/RPS4Y711, M216)

  • C1 F3393
    • C1a CTS11043
      • C1a1 M8
        • C1a1a P121
          • C1a1a1 CTS9336
            • C1a1a1a CTS6678 Japan, South Korea (Seoul)
            • C1a1a1b Z1356 Japan
          • C1a1a2 Z45460 China (Liaoning)
      • C1a2 (previously C6) V20
        • C1a2a V182
          • C1a2a1 V222 United Kingdom, Italy (Calabria), Greece, Hungary (Austrian Empire), Ukraine
          • C1a2a2 Z29329 Spain, Poland
        • C1a2b Z38888 Algeria, Armenians
    • C1b F1370
      • C1b1 K281
        • C1b1a B66/Z16458
          • C1b1a1(原名 C5) M356
          • C1b1a2 B65
      • C1b2 B477/Z31885
        • C1b2a(原名 C2) M38
          • C1b2a1 M208
            • C1b2a1a P33
            • C1b2a1b P54
        • C1b2b(原名 C4) M347
          • C1b2b1 M210
  • C2(原名 C3) M217
    • C2a M93
    • C2b L1373, F1396
      • C2b1
        • C2b1a
          • C2b1a1
            • C2b1a1a P39
        • C2b1b(原名 C3c) M48
    • C2c C-P53.1
    • C2d P62
    • C2e F2613/Z1338
      • C2e1
        • C2e1a
          • C2e1a1a M407
  • 其他

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ Wang, CC; Li, H. Inferring human history in East Asia from Y chromosomes. Investig Genet. 2013, 4 (1): 11. PMC 3687582. PMID 23731529. doi:10.1186/2041-2223-4-11. 
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpC.html
  4. ^ ISOGG, 2015 "Y-DNA Haplogroup C and its Subclades – 2015" (15 September 2015).
  5. ^ Xue Y, Zerjal T, Bao W, 等. Male demography in East Asia: a north-south contrast in human population expansion times. Genetics. April 2006, 172 (4): 2431–9. PMC 1456369. PMID 16489223. doi:10.1534/genetics.105.054270. 
  6. ^ Hammer MF, Karafet TM, Park H, 等. Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes. J. Hum. Genet. 2006, 51 (1): 47–58. PMID 16328082. doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0. 
  7. ^ Tajima, Atsushi; Hayami, Masanori; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Juji, T; Matsuo, M; Marzuki, S; Omoto, K; Horai, S. Genetic origins of the Ainu inferred from combined DNA analyses of maternal and paternal lineages. Journal of Human Genetics. 2004, 49 (4): 187–193. PMID 14997363. doi:10.1007/s10038-004-0131-x. 
  8. ^ Sengupta S, Zhivotovsky LA, King R, 等. Polarity and temporality of high-resolution y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of Central Asian pastoralists. Am. J. Hum. Genet. February 2006, 78 (2): 202–21. PMC 1380230. PMID 16400607. doi:10.1086/499411. 
  9. ^ Lell JT, Sukernik RI, Starikovskaya YB, 等. The dual origin and Siberian affinities of Native American Y chromosomes. Am. J. Hum. Genet. January 2002, 70 (1): 192–206. PMC 384887. PMID 11731934. doi:10.1086/338457. 
  10. ^ Wells RS, Yuldasheva N, Ruzibakiev R, 等. The Eurasian heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. August 2001, 98 (18): 10244–9. PMC 56946. PMID 11526236. doi:10.1073/pnas.171305098. 
  11. ^ Nasidze I, Quinque D, Dupanloup I, Cordaux R, Kokshunova L, Stoneking M. Genetic evidence for the Mongolian ancestry of Kalmyks. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. December 2005, 128 (4): 846–54. PMID 16028228. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20159. 
  12. ^ Tumonggor, Meryanne K; Karafet, Tatiana M; Downey, Sean; 等. Isolation, contact and social behavior shaped genetic diversity in West Timor. Journal of Human Genetics. 2014, 59 (9): 1–10. PMC 4521296. PMID 25078354. doi:10.1038/jhg.2014.62. 
  13. ^ Scheinfeldt, L.; Friedlaender, F; Friedlaender, J; Latham, K; Koki, G; Karafet, T; Hammer, M; Lorenz, J. Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 2006, 23 (8): 1628–41. PMID 16754639. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl028. 


人类Y染色体DNA单倍型类群进化树

Y染色体最近共同祖先
A
A1b A1a-T
A1a A2-T
A2 A3 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
G H IJK
IJ K
I J LT K(xLT)
L T M NO P S
O N Q R

各族群Y染色体单倍型类群 · 著名的Y染色體單倍型類群人