单倍群D-M174

单倍群D-M174(英語:Haplogroup D-M174)又名D1(ISOGG 2019),是人类Y染色体DNA单倍群之一,源于单倍群D。

单倍群D-M174
Haplogrupo D (ADN-Y).png
起源时间5万[1]至6万年前[2]
共祖年代{{{TMRCA}}}
起源地中亚[3]
上游单倍群D-CTS3946
下游单倍群D-M15、D-M55、D-P99
对应突变M174、IMS-JST021355、PAGES00003

起源与分布编辑

单倍群D1于距今约6万年前首次出现于亚洲[2][4]其与主要分佈於北非单倍群E同样源于M168突变的基础上产生的YAP突变。

单倍群D1主要在藏族日本阿伊努人安达曼人中高频分布,此外也见于其他东亚东南亚中亚人群。该单倍群的主要支系包括D-M15、D-P47、D-M64.1等。其中,M15主要见于藏族、瑶族彝族等人群[2][5][6][7][8],P47常见于藏族、纳西族普米族、普米藏族等[2],而M64.1(M55)则为日本所特有,包括阿伊努族大和族琉球族等。[9][10]

基因研究表明,安达曼人拥有约32%的东亚基因血统。安达曼人主要拥有东亚父系血统(D1a2b)。 但是,安达曼人的母亲血统类似于大洋洲的美拉尼西亚人(M31,M32)[11]

系统树编辑

以下系统树基于ISOGG2019年6月19日版本(ver.14.106)[12]


人类Y染色体DNA单倍型类群进化树

Y染色体最近共同祖先
A
A1b A1a-T
A1a A2-T
A2 A3 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
G H IJK
IJ K
I J LT K(xLT)
L T M NO P S
O N Q R

各族群Y染色体单倍型类群 · 著名的Y染色體單倍型類群人

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ Y-DNA Haplogroup D-M174 and its Subclades - 2017. [2017-04-07]. (原始内容存档于2017-05-28). 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Shi H, Zhong H, Peng Y, 等. Y chromosome evidence of earliest modern human settlement in East Asia and multiple origins of Tibetan and Japanese populations. BMC Biol. 2008, 6: 45 [2017-04-07]. PMC 2605740. PMID 18959782. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-6-45. (原始内容存档于2011-10-25). 
  3. ^ Vicente M. Cabrera (2017). "Carriers of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup L3 (and DE) basic lineages migrated back to Africa from Asia around 70,000 years ago". bioRxiv 233502.
  4. ^ Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF. New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree. Genome Research. 2008, 18 (5): 830–8 [2017-04-07]. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. (原始内容存档于2008-06-07). 
  5. ^ Xue, Y.; Zerjal, T; Bao, W; Zhu, S; Shu, Q; Xu, J; Du, R; Fu, S; 等. Male Demography in East Asia: A North-South Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times. Genetics. 2005, 172 (4): 2431–9. PMC 1456369. PMID 16489223. doi:10.1534/genetics.105.054270. 
  6. ^ Wang, Chuan-Chao, Ling-Xiang Wang, Rukesh Shrestha, Manfei Zhang, Xiu-Yuan Huang, Kang Hu, Li Jin, and Hui Li. "Genetic Structure of Qiangic Populations Residing in the Western Sichuan Corridor." PloS one,2014 9(8): e103772.
  7. ^ Wen Bo; Xie Xuanhua; Gao Song; 等. Analyses of Genetic Structure of Tibeto-Burman Populations Reveals Sex-Biased Admixture in Southern Tibeto-Burmans. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2004, 74 (856–865): 2004. PMC 1181980. PMID 15042512. doi:10.1086/386292. 
  8. ^ Cai, X; Qin, Z; Wen, B; Xu, S; Wang, Y; 等. Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y Chromosomes. PLoS ONE. 2011, 6 (8): e24282. PMC 3164178. PMID 21904623. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024282. 
  9. ^ Tajima, Atsushi; 等. Genetic origins of the Ainu inferred from combined DNA analyses of maternal and paternal lineages. Journal of Human Genetics. 2004, 49 (4): 187–193. PMID 14997363. doi:10.1007/s10038-004-0131-x. 
  10. ^ YOUICHI SATO, TOSHIKATSU SHINKA, ASHRAF A. EWIS, AIKO YAMAUCHI, TERUAKI IWAMOTO, YUTAKA NAKAHORI Overview of genetic variation in the Y chromosome of modern Japanese males.
  11. ^ East Asian ancestry in India. [January 2015]. 
  12. ^ Y-DNA Haplogroup D and its Subclades - 2019. [2020-10-11]. (原始内容存档于2019-10-11). 
  13. ^ Y-DNA Haplogroup D and its Subclades - 2014. [2017-04-07]. (原始内容存档于2017-05-28).