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叙利亚南部战役 (2018年)

2018年叙利亚南部战役,叙政府军代号为玄武岩行动(阿拉伯语:عملية البازلت‎)是叙利亚武装部队(SAA)及其盟友针对叙利亚南部地区的反对派和伊斯兰国武装发起的军事行动。战役始于政府军对德拉省东部反对派武装控制区的突然袭击,试图在反对派武装发起更大规模的进攻前率先攻破其防线并瓦解其士气。[53]

叙利亚南部战役 (2018年)
叙利亚内战德拉省战役俄罗斯在叙利亚内战的军事介入的一部分
2018 Daraa Campaign.svg
2018 Southwestern Daraa Offensive.svg
上图:截至2018年7月20日形势图
下图: 肃清伊斯兰国包围圈(2018年7月23–30日)

     叙政府军控制区      叙反对派武装控制区

     伊斯兰国控制区
日期2018年6月18日–7月31日
(1个月1周又6天)
地点
状态

叙政府军决定性胜利[22][23][24]

参战方

 叙利亚

 俄羅斯 (自6月24日起)[1][2][3]
 伊朗[4][5]
民兵支援:
Emblem of the Palestine Liberation Army.svg 巴勒斯坦解放军英语Palestine Liberation Army[6]
Emblem of Liwa Al-Quds.svg 圣城旅[7]
伊拉克什叶派民兵英语Private militias in Iraq[5]
真主党 (叛军宣称)[8]
阿巴斯旅英语Liwa Abu al-Fadhal al-Abbas[9][10]
法蒂玛旅[11]
As-Sa'iqa英语As-Sa'iqa[12]
叙利亚社会民族主义党英语Syrian Social Nationalist Party[13]
德鲁兹民兵[13]

自由叙利亚军

叙利亚解放阵线英语Syrian Liberation Front[15]

标准旅英语Alwiya al-Furqan 投降[17]
沙姆解放组织 投降[18][14]
伊斯兰军 投降[19][14]

伊斯兰国 (自7月10日起)

指挥官与领导者
苏赫尔·哈桑少将
(老虎部队)
Col. Ghiath Dalla[28][29]
(42nd Armoured Brigade)
Wajdi Abu Thalith (Former Omari Brigades Commander, Defected)[30]
Brig. Gen. "Abu Yaroub" Sami Fayiz al-Muhithawi 
Brig. Gen. Muhammad Naiouf[31]
Brig. Gen. Rakan Diab 
Brig. Gen. Imad Adnan Ibrahim [16] (Republican Guard)
Brig. Gen. Yusuf Mohammad Ali [16] (Republican Guard)
Brig. Gen. Kamal Sarim 負傷英语Wounded in action
Major Duraid Awad
Ali Taha[32] (Taha Group)
Emblem of Liwa Al-Quds.svg Col. Shady Agha (Liwa al-Quds)
Maher Ajeeb Jazza[9] (Liwa Abu al-Fadhal al-Abbas)
Haidar al Jubouri[29] (Liwa Zulfiqar)
Sheikh Abu Mu'annis Nabil Saymu'a [13] (Rocks of Urman Battalion)
Muhammad Majid al-Khatib[17]
(Criterion Brigades投降
"Abu Hatem" Rakan al-Khadir
(Army of Free Tribes投降
Abu Ayham (Army of Free Tribes投降[33]
Ahmad al-Oodah (Youth of Sunna Forces) 投降
"Abu Qusay" Adham al-Krad 投降
Abu Omar al-Zagloul (Lions of Sunna Brigade) 投降[34]
Adnan Al Masalmeh 投降
Abu Hussian Jelin (Mu'tazz Billah Army) 投降
Abu Hamza Tarbash (Army of the Revolution) 投降
Mohammad al-Refai (Top commander in Southern Syria)[35]
参战单位

叙利亚武装部队

俄罗斯联邦武装力量

Iraqi Shiite militias

  • Liwa Zulfiqar[5]

Hezbollah special forces (rebel claim)[8]
 伊朗

Eagles of the Whirlwind[13]
Druze militias

  • Mountain Brigade
    • Rocks of Urman Battalion[13]
  • Rijal al-Karama movement[13]

南方阵线英语Southern Front (Syrian rebel group)

  • Central Operations Room in the South[40]
    • Omari Brigades
    • 18 March Division
      • Engineering and Rocket Battalion
    • Army of the Revolution[36]
      • Yarmouk Army
      • Mu'tazz Billah Army[41]
    • Youth of Sunna Forces
    • Fallujah Horan Brigade
    • Lions of Sunna Brigade
    • Amoud Horan Brigade
    • Army of the South[42]
    • Repel the Invaders Operations Room
      • Al-Hara Military Council
      • Tasil Military Council
      • Swords of Truth Room
      • Liwa Ahrar Qita
      • Manifest Victory Operations Room
    • Other operations rooms:
      • Bunyan al-Marsous Operations Room
      • Close Ranks Operations Room
      • Repel the Invaders Operations Room
      • Triangle of Death Operations Room
      • Repel the Aggressors Operations Room

Gathering of Revolutionaries of Mahajah[43]

Military of ISIL

兵力
40,000[44] 30,000[45]
几百[45]
1,200–2,400+[46][47]
伤亡与损失
309人死[48][20][49] 205人死[48][50]
4,297人撤离[27]
310人死[20][50][49]
150–200人被俘[51][52]
236名平民丧生[48][49]
5,355名平民撤离至伊德利卜省[27]

背景编辑

战役经过编辑

攻占al-Lajat地区编辑

政府军取得快速进展编辑

向约旦边界推进编辑

包围并收复德拉城编辑

 
2018年7月9日的德拉城周边局势

进攻库奈特拉和叛军大规模投降编辑

肃清伊斯兰国包围圈编辑

 
叙利亚南部战役局势变化图(2018年6月20日—8月1日)
    叙政府军控制区
    反对派武装控制区
    伊斯兰国控制区
    与政府军达成和解的反对派控制区

各方反应编辑

国际组织
  •   联合国OCHA表示,联合国“对德拉暴力冲突升级的相关报道感到关切……这正在危及平民安全,造成许多家庭流离失所。”[54]联合国叙利亚问题特使斯塔凡·德米斯图拉英语Staffan de Mistura警告称,叙利亚军队和伊朗民兵的进攻将造成人道主义灾难,使750,000多人的生命处于危险之中,他同时表示已经有超过45'000人流离失所。[55] 安东尼奥·古特雷斯发表声明说:“呼吁立即停止目前的军事升级,并敦促所有相关方尊重其国际义务,包括保护平民和保障民用基础设施。”
  •   歐盟 – 欧洲联盟谴责违反阿斯塔纳协定中在德拉建立停火区的行为,并呼吁叙利亚政府及其盟国停止在德拉的敌对行动,以避免人道主义危机。[56]7月4日,欧盟发言人玛嘉·柯契姜琪克(Maja Kocijancic)在一份书面声明中说:“此类袭击明显违反了国际法和国际人道主义法,也危及到在联合国调解下恢复日内瓦和谈的任何进展。”她还说:“暴力事件的重新爆发也可能对邻国的安全产生严重影响,可能导致产生新的国内流离失所者和难民潮。” [57]
国家
  •   美國 – 美国常驻联合国代表妮基·黑莉就最近的冲突表示:“叙利亚政权违反叙利亚西南部停火的行为必须停止,”她同时说,“俄罗斯终将为叙利亚事态的进一步升级负责。” [58] 战役开始后,在一封给叛军领导人的信中写道:“我们完全明白你必须根据你和你的家属与派系的利益来做出决定,但切不可把这些决定建立在我们将会进行军事干涉的期望和假设上。” [59]信中还说:“我们,美利坚合众国政府,理解你们现在面临的困难,我们仍在奉劝俄罗斯和叙利亚政权不要在叙利亚西南地区采取任何违反降级协定的军事行动。”[60] 6月26日,美国国务院就暴力事件增加和违反降级协定一事发表声明:“我们对叙利亚西南部的事态发展,特别是俄罗斯加强空袭和亲叙利亚政权的地面进攻感到关切。这又是一个俄罗斯不顾平民生命安危违背先前订立协议的例子。”[61]
  •   沙烏地阿拉伯 – 沙特阿拉伯常驻联合国代表法赫德·穆塔里(Fahd Al-Mutairi)谈及此次攻势:“尽管有紧急呼吁和联合国决议要求开放人道主义走廊并向有需要和受影响的人们提供援助,叙利亚政权及其盟友仍在继续军事行动,围困和驱逐无辜的平民,完全违反了这些决议。”
  •   梵蒂冈 – 教宗方济各谴责叙利亚军队在德拉的进攻,他说:“最近几天的军事行动甚至袭击了学校和医院,并引发了数千名新难民的产生。”[62]
  •   土耳其 – 土耳其外长梅夫吕特·恰武什奥卢表示,美国、俄罗斯和伊朗对叙利亚政府违反承诺的行为负有责任。土耳其外交部发言人就当前局势表示:“我们强烈谴责叙利亚政权对无辜平民的非人道攻击。”他还说:“这些攻击阻碍了阿斯塔纳和联合国支持下的日内瓦和谈为减少当地暴力事件并寻找危机的政治解决方案所作出的努力。”[63]有土耳其官员表示,他们不负责维护在德拉达成的协议,但如果包括伊朗民兵和俄罗斯部队在内的亲政府武装进攻伊德利卜省,土耳其军方将维护降级协议,并对侵犯行为进行报复。[64] 针对在德拉战役后将对伊德利卜省计划发动进攻的报道,土耳其总统雷杰普·塔伊普·埃尔多安告诉俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔·普京,这可能会使阿斯塔纳协议被彻底摧毁。埃尔多安还对在德拉以平民为攻击目标的问题发表了评论。[65]
  •   以色列 – 一名以色列国防官员表示,以色列军方将攻击任何进入联合国戈兰高地停火区的叙利亚部队。这位官员还谈到与俄罗斯政府的一项协议:“该协议将成为阿萨德政权重返以色列北部边界后应对当地未来安全状况的基础。”[66] 以色列总理本雅明·内塔尼亚胡在启程会见俄罗斯官员前表示:“以色列对阿萨德没意见,但停火协议必须得到维护。”[67]
  •   伊朗 – 一位名叫侯赛因·萨拉米(Hossein Salami)的伊斯兰革命卫队指挥官在一次讲话中表示,将组建一支“伊斯兰军”以终结以色列并进占戈兰高地。[68]
国内
  •   沙姆解放组织 – 该组织发表声明,谴责那些与俄罗斯达成协议并交出该地争议控制区的叙利亚自由军团体。该组织同时还呼吁叙利亚南部所有反对派团体团结起来,以联合力量对抗叙利亚政府及其盟友,并声称他们(沙姆解放组织及其盟友)终将取得胜利。[18][69]
  •   叙利亚反对派 – 许多反对派武装组织谴责了这次进攻,并要求国际社会采取更多行动加以制止。反对派谈判代表纳赛尔·哈里里英语Naser al-Hariri谴责美国缺乏行动与干预,并声称他们缺乏行动的唯一解释便是他所谓的早有预谋的交易。为了回应圣行青年军(Youth of Sunna Forces)向叙利亚政府投降的行为,两名叙利亚自由军将领在与俄罗斯官员的谈判中谴责了这场谈判并视其为叛国,声称他们正在撤出谈判。[70][71]
  •   罗贾瓦 – 在叙利亚南部战役和对一场计划在伊德利卜省发起的军事行动展开谈判之后,叙利亚民主力量的官员表示,他们愿意同俄国、伊朗和叙利亚政府方面合作,对抗伊德利卜省的反对派和土耳其军队。他们还表示,他们愿意同上述国家和政府一道收付阿夫林地区。[72][73]
其他参与组织
  •   真主党 – 真主党总书记哈桑·纳斯鲁拉赞赏此次战役,称其为“巨大胜利”。[74] 在回应对该组织的压力,尤其是俄国外长拉夫罗夫要求其从叙利亚撤军时,纳斯鲁拉表示,只有叙利亚政府军才有权要求他们撤退,“我要告诉你,就算全世界一齐逼迫我们离开叙利亚,他们也赶不走我们”。[75]
  •   伊斯兰国 – 由于叙利亚政府拒绝将伊斯兰国武装人员流放到东部沙漠,伊斯兰国对苏韦达(Al-Suwayda)发动大规模袭击,抓获多名德鲁兹派女性并威胁称,只要叙利亚政府军不停止攻击德拉,就会杀害这些女性。[76]

后续事件编辑

截至2018年8月中旬,俄罗斯在戈兰高地缓冲区英语United Nations Disengagement Observer Force的布拉沃线(Bravo line)沿线设立了四个军事警察英语Military Police (Russia)哨所,另有两个在计划当中。[77][78]

参见编辑

参考资料编辑

  1. ^ Staff, Reuters. Russian jets strike rebel held town in Syria: opposition sources. Reuters. Reuters. 24 June 2018. 
  2. ^ Russian jets strike rebel held town in Syria. Jerusalem Post. 
  3. ^ Russia officially enters southwest Syria offensive despite US warnings. Al-Masdar. 24 June 2018. 
  4. ^ Syrian Army Steps Up Attacks in Southwest, Jordan Concerned. 20 June 2018 [22 June 2018] –通过Haaretz. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Caleb Weiss. Confirmed: First evidence of Iranian-controlled militia involvement in southern Syria. Long War Journal. 27 June 2018 [30 June 2018]. 
  6. ^ PLA Fighter Pronounced Dead in Daraa Hostilities. Action Group for Palestinians of Syria. 6 July 2018 [17 July 2018]. 
  7. ^ Assad regime, Iran prepare for operation in SW Syria. Anadolu Agency. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 Alexandra Gutowski; Caleb Weiss. Assad offensive creeps closer to southwest Syria ceasefire zone. Long War Journal. 24 June 2018 [30 June 2018]. 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 9.2 WATCH: Iranian militia leader appears in video in Daraa. english.alarabiya.net. [4 July 2018]. 
  10. ^ Seth Frantzman IRANIAN-BACKED MILITIA, SYRIA THREATEN TO CUT OFF REBELS NEAR GOLAN, Jerusalem Post, 2 July 2018
  11. ^ Military commander in the Southern Front illustrates latest developments of Daraa. 22 June 2018 [18 July 2018]. 
  12. ^ Palestinian Refugee Dies While Fighting alongside Gov't Forces South of Syria. Action Group for Palestinians of Syria. 5 July 2018 [17 July 2018]. 
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi. The Suwayda' Attacks: Interview. 27 July 2018 [4 August 2018]. 
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 Rebels suffer worst defeat of war after losing #Daraa to Syrian Army - map. Al-Masdar. 21 July 2018. 
  15. ^ Lindsey Snell. The Last of the Syrian Good-Guy Rebels. The Daily Beast. 30 July 2018 [3 August 2018]. 
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  17. ^ 17.0 17.1 A Free Army commander warns of upcoming battles in southern Syria. Shaam News Network. 15 June 2018. 
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  22. ^ 22.0 22.1 After a whole month of military operations and "reconciliations", the regime forces control the entire opposition factions'-controlled areas in Daraa Province. SOHR. 19 July 2018. 
  23. ^ 23.0 23.1 The displaced convoy departs to the Syrian north and the regime forces regain control of the entire Quneitra Province. SOHR. 31 July 2018. 
  24. ^ 24.0 24.1 After controlling the entire Yarmouk Basin, the regime forces pursuit about 100 ISIS members at the border with Jordan. SOHR. 31 July 2018. 
    Syrian government retakes Golan Heights frontier with Israel 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
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  26. ^ The Latest: Syrian forces drive IS from Golan frontier
  27. ^ 27.0 27.1 27.2 Operation Basalt overall results by the Russian Ministry of Defence
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  30. ^ Al-awsat, Asharq. Syria: 5 Commanders, 20 Members of Regime Forces Killed East Daraa. aawsat.com. 
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  43. ^ Military factions announced the formation of a "gathering of revolutionaries Mahja" Badra. SMART News Agency. 19 June 2018. [永久失效連結]
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    Over 400 rebels allegedly defect to ISIS in west Daraa. Al-Masdar. 4 July 2018 [10 July 2018]. 
  48. ^ 48.0 48.1 48.2 After the death of about 550 civilians, fighters, and members in less than a month, the regime forces complete their control over Muthallath al-Mawt and expand their control to 91% of Daraa's area. SOHR. 17 July 2018. 
  49. ^ 49.0 49.1 49.2 Regime’s helicopters re-target the valleys in which tens of members of Jaysh Khalid Ibn al-Walid and hundreds of civilians are fortifying in at Yarmouk Basin after failing to reach a conclusion. SOHR. 1 August 2018. 
  50. ^ 50.0 50.1 IS-linked group seizes village in south Syria, Al-Araby 12 July 2018
  51. ^ In exchange for the release of al-Suwaidaa abductees, Yarmouk Basin is undergoing negotiations between the regime and ISIS to move the last 100 remaining members of Jaysh Khaled and about the "presumed 150 captive" towards the desert. SOHR. 31 July 2018. 
  52. ^ Syrian captures more than 200 terrorists alive in largest ISIS mass surrender (video)
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  56. ^ Syrie : l'ONU et Washington réclament l'arrêt des opérations militaires. 
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  61. ^ Syria Breaks De-Escalation Agreement. 3 July 2018. 
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  64. ^ Turkish outpost reassurances to Idlib residents about their fate. 11 July 2018 [18 July 2018]. 
  65. ^ If Idlib attacked, Astana accord could be destroyed - Erdogan says. [18 July 2018]. 
  66. ^ Israeli defense official threatens to strike Syrian troops that enter demilitarized zone. 5 July 2018 [10 July 2018]. 
  67. ^ Landau, Noa. Netanyahu: Israel Has No Problem With Assad, but Cease-fire Agreements Must Be Upheld. [18 July 2018] –通过Haaretz. 
  68. ^ IRGC commander claims 'Islamic Army' near Golan Heights, ready to fight Israel. 10 July 2018 [10 July 2018]. 
  69. ^ 存档副本 (PDF). [2018-12-11]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2018-09-23). 
  70. ^ Surrender deals in southern Syria a huge gamble. [10 July 2018]. 
  71. ^ Syria's war: Rebel-held Bosra al-Sham surrenders in Deraa battle. www.aljazeera.com. [10 July 2018]. 
  72. ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-kurds/wary-of-u-s-ally-syrian-kurds-look-to-damascus-for-talks-idUSKBN1KF2NN?__twitter_impression=true
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  74. ^ Khoury, Jack; Reuters. Jordanian Official Reports Cease-fire in Southern Syria as Nasrallah Hails 'Very Big Victory'. 29 June 2018 –通过Haaretz. 
  75. ^ Editorial, Reuters. Hezbollah leader says to stay in Syria. 
  76. ^ https://mobile.almasdarnews.com/article/video-isis-threatens-to-slaughter-women-captives-unless-army-halts-west-daraa-offensive/
  77. ^ Russian military police deploys four posts on Golan heights TASS, 14 August 2018.
  78. ^ На Голанских высотах появились четыре поста российской военной полиции RIA Novosti, 14 August 2018.