地中海人種

地中海人種,是人類学在20世纪对欧洲高加索人種的一種分类[1]。他们分布范圍由爱尔兰西南、苏格兰南部、英国西部、威尔士東欧某些地方、南欧北非东非東北非西亚印度半島 [2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

愛爾蘭人,地中海人種。
《Man, Past and Present》(1899年),Augustus H. Keane著

體貌特徵编辑

地中海人種的特征是暗白膚色,其膚色比東亞人要黑、黑发、勾鼻、身材强壮、深色眼球、窄头型(頭部長闊是七三之比)、長臉与身材不高(五英尺五英寸左右)。

分佈编辑

 
意大利人,地中海人种。

赫胥黎还将地中海人种(Mediterranean)作为高加索人种澳大利亚人种之间的混合类型。这些人包括愛爾蘭人、威爾士人布列塔尼人、南部法国人、伊比利亚人、南義大利人、柏柏尔人希腊人亚美尼亚人格魯吉亞人阿拉伯人伊朗人埃及人、印度高種姓旁遮普人摩尔人衣索比亞人索馬里人阿富汗普什图人塔吉克人卡斯人等。

撒丁尼亚科西嘉有正宗的地中海人种。

種族理论编辑

19世纪前,地中海人種是地中海与中东,印度文明奠基人与传播人(美索不達米亞,波斯,埃及,印度,迦太基,希臘和羅馬)。但在19世纪末科学种族主义与白人至上主义者兴起后,评價趋于低下,地中海人種被指与黑人混合導致罗马帝国覆亡。且在北欧种族主义者眼中不是真正白人。在1950年代之后,人类学家將地中海人種当作整体白人不再细分。

20世紀初一位意大利人類學家朱塞佩·塞吉說他們其實發源於東非,他們與早期智人關係比其他人種密切。

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ Karim Murji, John Solomos. Racialization: Studies In Theory And Practice. Oxford University Press. 2005: 215. ISBN 0199257035. 
  2. ^ John Higham. Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860–1925. Rutgers University Press. 2002: 273. ISBN 0-8135-3123-3.  已忽略未知参数|url-access= (帮助)
  3. ^ Bryan S Turner. The Early Sociology of Class. Taylor & Francis. 1998: 241. ISBN 0-415-16723-X. 
  4. ^ The Races of Europe by Carlton Stevens Coon. From Chapter XI: The Mediterranean World – Introduction: "The next strip to follow, in a geographical sense, would be the whole highland belt of central Europe stretching over to the Balkans, to Asia Minor, and across to the Caucasus and Turkestan. This second zone, however, is one of immense racial complexity. In it various branches of the greater Mediterranean family, of Neolithic date and later, have been modified by combining in various proportions with each other and with the autochthonous Alpine race. The key to the complexity of this zone lies in the genetic action of this last entity, which is apparently a reduced, somewhat foetalized, or more highly evolved branch of the old Paleolithic stock than those which we have been studying in the north. Since, however, it is the action of this element upon the Mediterranean family which is important here, it will be easier to study this zone after having surveyed the population of a third belt, that occupied by the purest living representatives of the Mediterranean race. This third racial zone stretches from Spain across the Straits of Gibraltar to Morocco, and thence along the southern Mediterranean shores into Arabia, East Africa, Mesopotamia, and the Persian highlands; and across Afghanistan into India. This zone is one of comparative racial simplicity. In it the brunet Mediterranean race lives today in its various regional forms without, in most cases, the complication of the Paleolithic survivals and reemergences which have so confused the racial picture on the ground of Europe itself. Only in the mountains of Morocco and Algeria, and in the Canary Islands, is such a survival of any importance. The Careful study of living populations of the Mediterranean race in its early homelands will do much to simplify the task which lies ahead."
  5. ^ The Races of Europe by Carleton Stevens Coon. From Chapter X: The British Isles: "The Neolithic economy was probably first brought to Britain by the bearers of the Windmill Hill culture from the Continent, and they in turn were members of the group which had invaded western Europe from North Africa by way of Gibraltar. The racial type to which these Windmill Hill people presumably belonged was a small Mediterranean, but there is little or no direct skeletal evidence from England to confirm this. By far the most important Neolithic movement into Great Britain, and into Ireland as well, came by sea from the eastern Mediterranean lands, using Spain as a halting point on the way. It was this invasion which passed up the Irish Channel to western and northern Scotland, and around to Denmark and Sweden. The settlers who came by sea were the Megalithic people, and belonged to a clearly differentiated variety of tall, extremely long-headed Mediterranean, which was presumably for the most part brunet. This racial group furnished both Great Britain and Ireland, which consisted, before their arrival, of nearly empty land, with a numerous and civilized population which has left many descendants today."
  6. ^ Patrizia Palumbo. A Place in the Sun: Africa in Italian Colonial Culture from Post-Unification to the Present. University of California Press, 2003. P. 66.
  7. ^ Anne Maxwell. Picture Imperfect: Photography and Eugenics, 1870–1940. Paperback edition. Sussex Academic Press, 2010. P. 150.
  8. ^ "Our area, from Morocco to Afghanistan, is the homeland and cradle of the Mediterranean race. Mediterraneans are found also in Spain, Portugal, most of Italy, Greece and the Mediterranean islands, and in all these places, as in Southwest Asia, they form the major genetic element in the local populations. In a dark-skinned and finer-boned form they are also found as the major population element in Pakistan and northern India ... The Mediterranean race, then, is indigenous to, and the principal element in, the Southwest Asia, and the greatest concentration of a highly evolved Mediterranean type falls among two of the most ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, notably the Arabs and the Jews (Although it may please neither party, this is the truth.). The Mediterraneans occupy the center of the stage; their areas of greatest concentration are precisely those where civilization is the oldest. This is to be expected, since it was they who produced it and it, in a sense, that produced them.", Carleton Coon, the Story of the Middle East, 1958, pp. 154–157

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