塊莖（英語：stem tuber）及块根（英語：root tuber）均為部分植物物種借助其構造上膨大了的部分而形成的營養素贮藏器官。這些構造存在於多年生植物，用以在其越過冬季或旱季（多年化）之時，得以保留至下一生長季度時為植物的重新生長提供營養及能量，更可用於无性生殖。 塊莖（英語：stem tuber）由變粗了的根茎（rhizomes，根状膨胀地下莖）或匍匐茎形成，常見的物種有马铃薯及山藥等。部分文獻亦將块根（英語：root tuber）包括在內，即外形类似塊莖的膨胀侧根，例如：红薯、木薯及大麗菊；其他的或只包括塊莖。
The offspring or new tubers are attached to a parent tuber or form at the end of a hypogeogenous (initiated below ground) rhizome. In the autumn the plant dies, except for the new offspring stem tubers which have one dominant bud, which in spring regrows a new shoot producing stems and leaves, in summer the tubers decay and new tubers begin to grow. Some plants also form smaller tubers and/or tubercules which act like seeds, producing small plants that resemble (in morphology and size) seedlings. Some stem tubers are long-lived, such as those of tuberous 秋海棠属, but many plants have tubers that survive only until the plants have fully leafed out, at which point the tuber is reduced to a shriveled-up husk.
Tuberous begonia, yams, and Cyclamen are commonly grown stem tubers. Mignonette vine (落葵薯) produces aerial stem tubers on 12至25-英尺-tall（3.7至7.6-米） vines, the tubers fall to the ground and grow. Plectranthus esculentus of the mint family 唇形科, produces tuberous under ground organs from the base of the stem, weighing up to 1.8 kg per tuber, forming from axillary buds producing short stolons that grow into tubers. Even though 荚果 are not commonly associated with forming stem tubers, 玫红山黧豆 is an example native to Asia and Europe, where it was once even grown as a crop.
The tuber has all the parts of a normal stem, including nodes and internodes. The nodes are the eyes and each has a leaf scar. The nodes or eyes are arranged around the tuber in a spiral fashion beginning on the end opposite the attachment point to the stolon. The terminal bud is produced at the farthest point away from the stolon attachment and tubers thus show the same 顶端优势 as a normal stem. Internally, a tuber is filled with starch stored in enlarged 薄壁组织 like cells. The inside of a tuber has the typical cell structures of any stem, including a pith, vascular zones, and a cortex.
The tuber is produced in one growing season and used to perennate the plant and as a means of propagation. When fall comes, the above-ground structure of the plant dies, but the tubers survive over winter underground until spring, when they regenerate new shoots that use the stored food in the tuber to grow. As the main shoot develops from the tuber, the base of the shoot close to the tuber produces adventitious roots and lateral buds on the shoot. The shoot also produces stolons that are long etiolated stems. The stolon elongates during long days with the presence of high 生長素 levels that prevent root growth off of the stolon. Before new tuber formation begins, the stolon must be a certain age. The enzyme lipoxygenase makes a hormone, jasmonic acid, which is involved in the control of potato tuber development.
The stolons are easily recognized when potato plants are grown from seeds. As the plants grow, stolons are produced around the soil surface from the nodes. The tubers form close to the soil surface and sometimes even on top of the ground. When potatoes are cultivated, the tubers are cut into pieces and planted much deeper into the soil. Planting the pieces deeper creates more area for the plants to generate the tubers and their size increases. The pieces sprout shoots that grow to the surface. These shoots are rhizome-like and generate short stolons from the nodes while in the ground. When the shoots reach the soil surface, they produce roots and shoots that grow into the green plant.
A tuberous root or storage root, is a modified lateral root, enlarged to function as a 贮藏器官. The enlarged area of the root-tuber, or storage root, can be produced at the end or middle of a root or involve the entire root. It is thus different in origin but similar in function and appearance to a stem tuber. Examples of plants with notable tuberous roots include the sweet potato, 木薯, and 大麗菊.
Root tubers are perennating organs, thickened roots that store nutrients over periods when the plant cannot actively grow, thus permitting survival from one year to the next. The massive enlargement of secondary roots typically represented by sweet potato (番薯), have the internal and external cell and tissue structures of a normal root, they produce 根 and stems which again produce adventitious roots.
In root-tubers, there are no nodes and internodes or reduced leaves. Root tubers have one end called the proximal end, which is the end that was attached to the old plant; this end has crown tissue that produces buds which grow into new stems and foliage. The other end of the root tuber is called the distal end, and it normally produces unmodified roots. In stem tubers the order is reversed, with the distal end producing stems. Tuberous roots are biennial in duration: the first year the plant produces root-tubers, and at the end of the growing season, the plant shoots often die, leaving the newly generated tubers. The next growing season, the root-tubers produce new shoots. As the shoots of the new plant grow, the stored reserves of the root-tuber are consumed in the production of new roots, stems, and reproductive organs; any remaining root tissue dies concurrently to the plant's regeneration of next generation of root-tubers.
萱草 plus a number of Daylily hybrids have large root-tubers, H. fulva spreads by underground stolons that end with a new fan that grows roots that produce thick root tubers and then send out more stolons.
Plants with root tubers are propagated in late summer to late winter by digging up the tubers and separating them, making sure that each piece has some crown tissue for replanting.
- 魔芋属（Amorphophallus）：本屬包括有巨花魔芋（Amorphophallus titanum）等有塊狀構造的熱帶植物。
- 鳞茎（Bulb）：另一種變態莖構造， with a short fleshy vertical stem, covered by thick fleshy modified leaves that enclose a bud for the next season's growth
- 茎基, a form of stem modification similar in appearance with tuber
- 球莖, modified stems covered by dry scale-like leaves called a tunic, differing from true bulbs by having distinct nodes and internodes
- Taproot, the largest, most central, and most dominant root of some plants
- Rooting cuttings of tropical trees, London: Commonwealth Science Council: 11, 1994, ISBN 978-0-85092-394-0
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- Mauseth, James D., Botany : An Introduction to Plant Biology 5th, Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning, 2012, ISBN 978-1-4496-6580-7, p. 672
- Raz, Lauren. Dioscoreaceae. Flora of North America (FNA) (Missouri Botanical Garden) –通过eFloras.org.
- Martin, FW; Ortiz, Sonia. Origin and Anatomy of Tubers of Dioscorea Floribunda and D. Spiculiflora. Botanical Gazette. 1963, 124 (6): 416–421. JSTOR 2473209. doi:10.1086/336228.
- J. Allemann; P.J. Robbertse; P.S. Hammes. Organographic and anatomical evidence that the edible storage organs of Plectranthus esculentus N.E.Br. (Lamiaceae) are stem tubers. Field Crops Research. 20 June 2003, 83 (1): 35–39. doi:10.1016/S0378-4290(03)00054-6.
- Mansfeld, Rudolf, Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops, Berlin: Springe: 2231, 2001, ISBN 978-3-540-41017-1
- University of California, Berkeley. Potato Genome Project. [2018-07-17] （英语）.
- Interrelationships of the number of initial sprouts, stems, stolons. [2005-05-10]. （原始内容存档于2005-04-13）.
- tubers per potato plant Journal Potato Research. Springer Netherlands ISSN 0014-3065 (Print) ISSN 1871-4528 (Online) Issue Volume 33, Number 2 / June, 1990
- Davis, Edited by Tim D.; Haissig, Bruce E., Biology of adventitious root formation, New York: Plenum Press: 17, 1994, ISBN 978-0-306-44627-6
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- Hammerson, Geoffrey A., Connecticut wildlife : biodiversity, natural history, and conservation, Hanover: University Press of New England: 89, 2004, ISBN 978-1-58465-369-1
- Davis, P.H.; Cullen, J., The identification of flowering plant families, including a key to those native and cultivated in north temperate regions, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 102, 1979, ISBN 978-0-521-29359-4
- Cook's Thesaurus has a good inventory of tuber varieties.