奥利维埃·梅西安

奧立佛·梅湘(法語:Olivier Messiaen法语发音:[ɔlivje mɛsjɑ̃],1908年12月10日-1992年4月27日),法國作曲家風琴家、音乐教育家,普遍公認為二十世紀最具代表性的作曲家之一。他的音樂常融入複雜的節奏語言(他私下鍾愛古希臘印度音樂),並以「有限移調調式」(梅湘自他早期作品中提出的概念)鋪陳出和聲旋律。梅湘身為一位天主教徒,曲作中常流露出他對信仰的虔誠。

梅西安
Messiaen.jpg
原文名Olivier Eugène Prosper Charles Messiaen
出生1908年12月10日
阿维尼翁
逝世1992年4月27日(83歲)
巴黎
国籍法国
知名作品管弦乐《图伦加利亚交响曲》,宗教音乐《我主基督之变形》,钢琴曲《圣婴二十默想》,《鸟鸣集》,室内乐《时间结束四重奏》
所属时期/乐派20世纪
擅长类型管弦乐,键盘音乐,宗教音乐

他時常遠行,因而在作品中融入了多樣元素,例如日本音樂、猶他州布萊斯峽谷國家公園的風景以及聖方濟各的生活等。梅湘曾形容,當他聽見和音、尤其是根據他的音樂調式所譜出的和聲時,會不由自主產生共鳴、聯想到色彩(即所謂的聯覺現象),進而將這些色彩結合、轉化入旋律之中。有一段時間,他全心投入關於「全序列主義參數化的實驗,因此被後世認定是序列主義領域的革新先鋒。他是首位在管弦樂曲中使用馬特諾琴的作曲家之一。

生平编辑

梅西安於1919年至1930年間在巴黎音樂學院修讀音樂。1931年開始,受聘為巴黎天主圣三教堂的風琴師。二次世界大戰爆發後,1939年受召入伍,不久即被德軍俘虜,1941年獲釋。1942年受聘為巴黎音樂學院教授。

梅西安對調性和聲十二音列鳥歌希臘節奏印度節奏等等都有深入的研究,其音樂理論著作有《我的音樂語言》(Technique de mon langage musical)和《節奏、色彩與鳥鳴的理論》(Traité de rythme, de couleur, et d’ornithologie)。梅西安是巴黎音樂學院的教授,其著名學生有皮埃尔·布莱兹(Pierre Boulez)、卡尔海因茨·施托克豪森(Karlheinz Stockhausen)、伊馮·洛里奧(Yvonne Loriod,後來成為梅西安第二任妻子)、澤納基斯(Iannis Xenakis)、陳其鋼等等。

音乐作品编辑

延伸阅读编辑

  • Baggech, Melody Ann (1998). An English Translation of Olivier Messiaen's "Traite de Rythme, de Couleur, et d'Ornithologie" Norman: The University of Oklahoma.
  • Barker, Thomas (2012). "The Social and Aesthetic Situation of Olivier Messiaen's Religious Music: Turangalîla Symphonie." International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music 43/1:53–70.
  • Benitez, Vincent P. A Creative Legacy: Messiaen as Teacher of Analysis.. College Music Symposium. 2000, 40 (2000): 117–39. JSTOR 40374403. 
  • Benitez, Vincent P. (2001). "Pitch Organization and Dramatic Design in Saint François d’Assise of Olivier Messiaen." PhD diss., Bloomington: Indiana University.
  • Benitez, Vincent P. (2002). “Simultaneous Contrast and Additive Designs in Olivier Messiaen’s Opera Saint François d’Assise.” Music Theory Online 8.2 (August 2002). http://mto.societymusictheory.org/ 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  • Benitez, Vincent P. (2004). "Aspects of Harmony in Messiaen's Later Music: An Examination of the Chords of Transposed Inversions on the Same Bass Note." Journal of Musicological Research 23, no. 2: 187–226.
  • Benitez, Vincent P. (2004). "Narrating Saint Francis's Spiritual Journey: Referential Pitch Structures and Symbolic Images in Olivier Messiaen's Saint François d'Assise." In Poznan Studies on Opera, edited by Maciej Jablonski, 363–411.
  • Benitez, Vincent P. (2008). “Messiaen as Improviser.” Dutch Journal of Music Theory 13, no. 2 (May 2008): 129–44.
  • Benitez, Vincent P. (2009). “Reconsidering Messiaen as Serialist.” Music Analysis 28, nos. 2–3 (2009): 267–99 (published April 21, 2011).
  • Benitez, Vincent P. (2010). "Messiaen and Aquinas." In Messiaen the Theologian, edited by Andrew Shenton, 101–26. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  • Boivin, Jean (1993). "La Classe de Messiaen: Historique, reconstitution, impact". Ph.D. diss. Montreal: Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal.
  • Boswell-Kurc, Lilise (2001). "Olivier Messiaen's Religious War-Time Works and Their Controversial Reception in France (1941–1946) ". Ph.D. diss. New York: New York University.
  • Bruhn, Siglind. Messiaen's Contemplations of Covenant and Incarnation: Musical Symbols of Faith in the Two Great Piano Cycles of the 1940s. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press. 2007. ISBN 978-1-57647-129-6. 
  • Bruhn, Siglind. Messiaen's Interpretations of Holiness and Trinity: Echoes of Medieval Theology in the Oratorio, Organ Meditations, and Opera. Dimension & diversity, no. 10. 1st. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press. Jul 7, 2008: 229. ISBN 978-1576471395. OCLC 227191541 (英语). 
  • Burns, Jeffrey Phillips (1995). "Messiaen's Modes of Limited Transposition Reconsidered". M.M. thesis, Madison: University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Cheong Wai-Ling (2003). "Messiaen's Chord Tables: Ordering the Disordered". Tempo 57, no. 226 (October): 2–10.
  • Cheong Wai-Ling (2008). "Neumes and Greek Rhythms: The Breakthrough in Messiaen's Birdsong". Acta Musicologica 80, no. 1:1–32.
  • Dingle, Christopher (2013). Messiaen's Final Works. Farnham, UK: Ashgate. ISBN 9780754606338.
  • Fallon, Robert Joseph (2005). "Messiaen's Mimesis: The Language and Culture of The Bird Styles". Ph.D. diss. Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley.
  • Fallon, Robert (2008). "Birds, Beasts, and Bombs in Messiaen's Cold War Mass". The Journal of Musicology 26, no. 2 (Spring): 175–204.
  • Festa, Paul. Oh My God: Messiaen in the Ear of the Unbeliever. San Francisco: Bar Nothing Books. 2008. 
  • Goléa, Antoine. Rencontres avec Olivier Messiaen. Paris: Julliard. 1960. 
  • Hardink, Jason M. (2007). "Messiaen and Plainchant". D.M.A. diss. Houston: Rice University.
  • Harris, Joseph Edward (2004). "Musique coloree: Synesthetic Correspondence in the Works of Olivier Messiaen". Ph.D. diss. Ames: The University of Iowa.
  • Hill, Matthew Richard (1995). "Messiaen's Regard du silence as an Expression of Catholic Faith". D.M.A. diss. Madison: The University of Wisconsin, Madison.
  • Laycock, Gary Eng Yeow (2010). "Re-evaluating Olivier Messiaen's Musical Language from 1917 to 1935". Ph.D. diss. Bloomington: Indiana University, 2010.
  • Luchese, Diane (1998). "Olivier Messiaen's Slow Music: Glimpses of Eternity in Time". Ph.D. diss. Evanston: Northwestern University
  • McGinnis, Margaret Elizabeth (2003). "Playing the Fields: Messiaen, Music, and the Extramusical". Ph.D. diss. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
  • Nelson, David Lowell (1992). "An Analysis of Olivier Messiaen's Chant Paraphrases". 2 vols. Ph.D. diss. Evanston: Northwestern University
  • Ngim, Alan Gerald (1997). "Olivier Messiaen as a Pianist: A Study of Tempo and Rhythm Based on His Recordings of Visions de l'amen". D.M.A. diss. Coral Gables: University of Miami.
  • Peterson, Larry Wayne (1973). "Messiaen and Rhythm: Theory and Practice". Ph.D. diss. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  • Puspita, Amelia (2008). "The Influence of Balinese Gamelan on the Music of Olivier Messiaen". D.M.A. diss. Cincinnati: University of Cincinnati
  • Reverdy, Michèle. L'Œuvre pour orchestre d'Olivier Messiaen. Paris: Alphonse Leduc. 1988. ISBN 2-85689-038-5. 
  • Schultz, Rob (2008). "Melodic Contour and Nonretrogradable Structure in the Birdsong of Olivier Messiaen". Music Theory Spectrum 30, no. 1 (Spring): 89–137.
  • Shenton, Andrew (1998). "The Unspoken Word: Olivier Messiaen's 'langage communicable'". Ph.D. diss. Cambridge: Harvard University.
  • Shenton, Andrew. Olivier Messiaen’s System of Signs. Abingdon, Oxon & New York: Routledge. 2008. ISBN 978-0754661689. 
  • Shenton, Andrew (ed.). Messiaen the Theologian. Abingdon, Oxon & New York: Routledge. 2010. ISBN 978-0754666400. 
  • Sholl, Robert. Messiaen Studies. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press. 2008. ISBN 978-0-521-83981-5. 
  • Simeone, Nigel (2004). "'Chez Messiaen, tout est priére': Messiaen's Appointment at the Trinité". The Musical Times 145, no. 1889 (Winter): 36–53.
  • Simeone, Nigel (2008). "Messiaen, Koussevitzky and the USA". The Musical Times 149, no. 1905 (Winter): 25–44.
  • Waumsley, Stuart. The Organ Music of Olivier Messiaen New. Paris: Alphonse Leduc. 1975. OCLC 2911308; LCCN 77-457244. 
  • Welsh Ibanez, Deborah (2005). Color, Timbre, and Resonance: Developments in Olivier Messiaen's Use of Percussion Between 1956–1965. D.M.A. diss. Coral Gables: University of Miami
  • Zheng, Zhong (2004). A Study of Messiaen's Solo Piano Works. Ph.D. diss. Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Films编辑

  • Apparition of the Eternal Church – Paul Festa's 2006 film about responses of 31 artists to Messiaen's music.
  • Messiaen at 80 (1988). Directed by Sue Knussen. BFI database entry.
  • Olivier Messiaen et les oiseaux (1973). Directed by Michel Fano and Denise Tual.
  • Olivier Messiaen – The Crystal Liturgy (2007 [DVD release date]). Directed by Olivier Mille.
  • Olivier Messiaen: Works (1991). DVD on which Messiaen performs "Improvisations" on the organ at the Paris Trinity Church.
  • The South Bank Show: Olivier Messiaen: The Music of Faith (1985). Directed by Alan Benson. BFI database entry.
  • Quartet for the End of Time, with the President's Own Marine Band Ensemble, A Film by H. Paul Moon

参见编辑