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蕾貝卡·所羅門1851年作品《女家庭教师》(The Governess)

女家庭教师(Governess)是西方一类受个人雇佣以教育儿童的职业,她们不会像保姆一样为受教者的生活琐事操劳,而是为学龄儿童提供专门的教育[1],即所谓的3R(阅读、写作和算术,英语作reading、writing、arithmetic)[2]。雇佣女家庭教师曾流行于西方上流社会中,这些家长不太倾向于将年幼的孩子送到寄宿学校读书。但在孩子的年龄足够大时,他们仍会被送往学校,或者换男性的导师来辅导。

在现代社会,这一职业已经式微,但在一些皇室或极其富有的家庭中仍存在[3][4][5]

參見编辑

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ A Governess's Duties 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆, Outback House (Australian Broadcasting Corporation).
  2. ^ McDonald, James Joseph, and J. A. C. Chandler. Life in Old Virginia; A Description of Virginia More Particularly the Tidewater Section, Narrating Many Incidents Relating to the Manners and Customs of Old Virginia so Fast Disappearing As a Result of the War between the States, Together with Many Humorous Stories. Norfold, Va: Old Virginia Pub. Co. 1907: 241. 
  3. ^ Ellis, Phyllis. Desert Governess: An Inside View on the Saudi Arabian Royal Family. London: Eye Books. 2000. ISBN 1-903070-01-5. 
  4. ^ Harris, Julia: A career as a Governess? What skills do you need?, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 15 October 2004.
  5. ^ Telegraph.co.uk, The Telegraph, 15 March 2009.

扩展阅读编辑

  • Brandon, Ruth: Other People's Daughters: The Lives And Times Of The Governess. 2008
  • Broughton, Trev and Ruth Symes: The Governess: An Anthology. Stroud: Sutton, 1997. ISBN 0-7509-1503-X
  • Budde, Gunilla: Als Erzieherinnen in Europa unterwegs: Gouvernanten, governesses und gouvernantes, EGO – European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2011, retrieved: 21 February 2013.
  • Hughes, Kathryn: The Victorian Governess, London: Hambledon, 1993. ISBN 1-85285-002-7
  • Peterson, M. Jeanne: "The Victorian Governess: Status Incongruence in Family and Society", in Suffer and Be Still: Women In the Victorian Age, ed. Martha Vicinus. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1972.

外部連接编辑