巨爵座

巨爵座南天星座拉丁语原名“Crater”源自希腊语krater”,指用来倒葡萄酒杯子。巨爵座隶属二世纪天文学家克劳狄乌斯·托勒密排列的48星座,代表的杯子与天神阿波罗有关,放在长蛇座代表的水蛇后背。

巨爵座
Crater
星座
Crater
縮寫Crt
所有格Crateris
象徵物the 杯子
赤經11h
赤緯−16°
面積282平方度 (第53)
主要恆星4
拜耳/佛氏
恆星
12
行星的恆星7
亮度3m以上的恆星0
距離在10秒差距(32.62光年)內的恆星0
最亮星翼宿七 (3.57m)
最近的恆星LHS 2358
(34.86 ly, 10.69 pc)
梅西爾天體0
流星雨翼宿六流星雨
鄰接星座狮子座
六分仪座
长蛇座
乌鸦座
室女座
可以看見的緯度範圍: +65°至−90°之間
最適合觀賞的月份:四月

巨爵座没有恒星亮度高于三等星,最亮的翼宿七翼宿一分别是3.56与4.07视星等,都是老化橙巨星,温度低于太阳但体积更大。巨爵座β是白巨星和白矮星组成的联星系。七个恒星系内发现系外行星。巨爵座还有巨爵座2矮星系与NGC 3981等少量知名星系,以及著名类星体RX J1131

神话编辑

 
1825年星图卡片《乌拉尼亚之镜》,贯穿左右最显眼的是长蛇座,巨爵座是蛇背中间金色且两边都有把手的杯子

据公元前至少1100年的巴比伦星表记载,今巨爵座范围恒星可能同乌鸦座恒星一起组成巴比伦人的乌鸦座。英国科学家约翰·罗杰斯(John H. Rogers)认为,巨爵座附近的长蛇座在古巴伦规范星表《纲要》代表冥界之神宁吉兹济达𒀭𒊩𒌆𒄑𒍣𒁕)。他推断长蛇座旁边的巨爵座与乌鸦座都是死亡的象征,代表冥界之门。[1]密特拉教的符号和标志里也有巨爵座与乌鸦座,估计该教源于中东,后传入古希腊和罗马[2]

希腊神话所述,阿波罗派手下乌鸦去取水,但乌鸦在路上发现无花果后等待果实成熟再吃掉,因此延误行程。乌鸦用杯取水后顺便带回水蛇,谎称是水蛇喝掉水导致延误。[3]阿波罗看出乌鸦的欺骗,愤怒之下把杯子、蛇和乌鸦都朝天上一扔[4]。三者都变成天上星座,所在位置正好确保乌鸦没法儿从杯里喝水,以此警告不要得罪神明[3]

菲拉尔克斯对巨爵座起源提出不同说法,据称特洛伊附近城池伊莱莎(Eleusa)瘟疫肆虐,统治者德米芬(Demiphon)得到谕示每年需献祭少女一名。德米芬宣布抽签决定献祭人选,但没有把自家女儿的名字列入。贵族马修斯修斯拒绝接受,结果女儿被德米芬献祭。马修斯修斯事后杀害德米芬的女儿,把血混入葡萄酒装在杯里让德米芬饮用。东窗事发后德米芬下令把马修斯修斯和杯子扔进大海,巨爵座便代表杯子。[3]

 
1632至1633年馬什哈德出产的玛努切赫尔地球仪上所印巨爵座,瑞典阿迪尔诺收藏

巨爵座恒星在中国古代天文学南方朱雀[5],与长蛇座部分恒星组成朱雀的翅膀翼宿,代表第27个月宫。翼宿还代表英勇的弓箭手,弓由长蛇座恒星组成。[6]社會群島居民把巨爵座称为“Moana-'ohu-noa-'ei-ha'a-moe-hara”,意为“洗去罪孽的海洋漩涡”[7]

简介编辑

巨爵座覆盖282.4平方度夜空,占0.685%,在88个现代星座排第53[8],北挨狮子座室女座、东临乌鸦座、南面和西侧是长蛇座,西北靠六分仪座。1922年,國際天文聯會确定以三字母缩写“Crt”代指巨爵座。[9]比利时天文学家尤金·德爾波特1930年正式划分星座边界,巨爵座呈六条边组成的多边形(见文首信息框)。星座在赤道坐標系統赤经位于10h 51m 14s到11h 56m 24s范围,赤纬在−6.66°至−25.20°之间。[10]星座位于南天球,只能在北緯65度線以南观察[8][注 1]

显著特点编辑

恒星编辑

 
巨爵座可用肉眼观测

德国天体制图师約翰·拜耳用希腊字母ΑΛ为星座大部分明亮恒星命名。约翰·波德为部分恒星编号,但后世留用的只有巨爵座ψ約翰·佛蘭斯蒂德佛蘭斯蒂德命名法为31颗巨爵座及附近的长蛇座恒星编号组成巨爵长蛇座,大部分恒星属长蛇座范围。[11]巨爵座最亮的翼宿七翼宿一翼宿二组成三角形,位于长蛇座亮星翼宿五附近[12]。巨爵座共有33颗恒星亮度不低于6.5视星等[注 2][8]

3.56视星等的翼宿七是巨爵座最亮恒星,离地163±4光年[14],是光谱等级K0III的橙巨星,有1.0至1.4倍太阳质量。该星年代久远,已经冷却并膨胀到22.44±0.28倍太阳半径,但辐射量达171.4±9.0倍太陽光度,外层有效溫度4408±57开尔文[15]。翼宿一又称“阿尔克斯”(Alkes),意指“杯子”[16][注 3],代表巨爵座杯底[3],是4.07视星等的橙色星体[17],距地球141±2光年[18]。估计该星质量为太阳1.75±0.24倍,已经耗尽核心的氢并膨胀到13.2±0.55太阳直径[19],光度69倍,有效温度约4600开尔文[20]

4.5视星等的巨爵座β联星系,由光谱等级分别是A1III和DA1.4的白巨星与白矮星组成[21],距太阳296±8光年[22]。联星系中的白矮星远比主恒星小,即便用哈勃空间望远镜也无法分开观测[23]。翼宿二是雙星,可用小型业余望远镜分辨[24]。其中主星是光谱等级A7V的白主序星,估计有1.81倍太阳质量[25],从星只有9.6视星等和75%太阳质量[25],很可能是橙矮星,两星相互围绕旋转的轨道周期至少有1150年[26]。双星距太阳85.6±0.8光年[27]

翼宿十翼宿三代表杯子边缘[3],其中翼宿十是巨爵座肉眼可见的最大恒星[28],已演化成光谱等级K5 III的K型巨星[29],质量和太阳差不多但已膨胀到44.7倍太阳半径[30],光度更达391倍[31],与太阳相距366±8光年[32]。翼宿三也是联星系,距太阳326±9光年[33]。4.95视星等的主星已演化到巨星阶段,光谱等级G8 III[34],是利用核心氦聚变产生能量的紅群聚[35],已膨胀到13倍太阳半径[36],光度157倍[31]。从星亮度7.84视星等[37]。科学家确认翼宿三属天狼星超星系团[38],或许还属大熊座移動星群,该星群包含的恒星可能源自同一疏散星团,太空走向类似[39]

变星是业余天文学家的热门观测目标,他们的观察对人类理解恒星行为贡献很大[40]。翼宿一附近的红色星体巨爵座R是SRB类半規則變星[12],光谱等级M7,亮度以160天周期在9.8到11.2视星等范围变化[41],距太阳770±40光年[42]。巨爵座TT是激變變星,由接近太阳质量的白矮星和光谱等级K5V的橙矮星组成联星系,两星距离很近,以6小时26分的轨道周期围绕彼此旋转。白矮星从伴星吸收物质,由此形成的吸积盘按周期增亮并爆发。变星沉寂时只有15.9视星等,爆发时增至12.7视星等。[43]巨爵座SZ是8.5视星等的天龍座BY型变星,距太阳42.9±1.0光年[44],还是大熊座移動星群成员[39]

HD 98800又称巨爵座TV,是约有七百到一千万年历史的恒星系,由分成两组距离很近的四颗恒星组成。其中一组有尘埃和气体组成的岩屑盤环绕两星运转,岩屑盘距两星约三到五天文單位,人类曾以为是原行星盤[46]DENIS-P J1058.7−1548是质量不足太阳5.5%的棕矮星,1700至2000开尔文的表面温度已经低到足以形成云层。该星的亮度变化可用肉眼识别,红外光谱显示星体表面覆有大气云层。[47]

HD 96167是1.31±0.09倍太阳质量的恒星,距太阳279±1光年[48]。星体核心的氢很可能已经耗尽并开始膨胀和冷却,目前是1.86±0.07倍太阳直径的黄次巨星,光度是太阳3.4±0.2倍。分析星体径向速度后科学家推断该星有质量下限为木星68%的行星,公转周期498.9±1.0天。行星軌道離心率很高,轨道间隔在0.38至2.22天文单位范围变化。[49]HD 98649是光谱等级G4V的黄主序星,质量和直径与太阳基本相同但光度只有八成六。2012年科学家用径向速度法发现该星伴有至少六倍木星质量的行星,而且行星公转周期很长,达4951+607
−465
天。计算结果表明该行星轨道离心率很高,最远时离恒星有10.6天文单位,有望未来直接成像。[50]BD−10°3166是富含金属的橙主序星,光谱等级K3.0V,距太阳268±10光年[51]。该星拥有質量下限木星48%的熱木星类行星,轨道周期仅3.49天[52]WASP-34是光谱等级G5V的類太陽恆星,质量为太阳1.01±0.07倍,直径0.93±0.12倍,距太阳432±3光年[53]。该星拥有0.59±0.01倍木星质量的行星,轨道周期只有4.317天[54]

深空天体编辑

巨爵座2矮星系是银河系的衛星星系[55],距太阳约38万光年[56]NGC 3511是靠近星座边缘的螺旋星系,位于巨爵座β以西两度,亮度只有11视星等。NGC 3513是与NGC 3511相隔11弧分棒旋星系[57]NGC 3981也是螺旋星系,有两条很宽但相互干扰的螺旋臂[58],NGC 3981是NGC 4038星系群成员,与NGC 3672、NGC 3887等45个星系组成室女超星系团的巨爵座星云[59]

RX J1131是距太阳约60亿光年的类星体,人类首次直接测量的旋转黑洞就在类星体中间[60]GRB 011211是人类2001年12月11日发现的伽玛射线暴,共持续270秒,刷新X射线天文学BeppoSAX卫星所测伽玛射线暴时长纪录[61]。2003年3月23日发现的GRB 030323持续26秒[62]

流星雨编辑

翼宿六流星雨较为黯淡,在1月11至22日出现,16至17日达到顶峰[63]

注释编辑

  1. ^ 技术上来说北纬65到83度间也能看到部分巨爵座,但只高于地平线几度的恒星无论通过何等手段都无法观测[8]
  2. ^ 6.5视星等是肉眼在城乡结合位置理想夜空条件下能看到的光线最微弱天体[13]
  3. ^ 源自阿拉伯语الكأس‎”(alka's‎)[16]

参考资料编辑

  1. ^ Rogers, John H. Origins of the ancient constellations: I. The Mesopotamian traditions. Journal of the British Astronomical Association. 1998, 108: 9–28. Bibcode:1998JBAA..108....9R. 
  2. ^ Rogers, John H. Origins of the ancient constellations: II. The Mediterranean traditions. Journal of the British Astronomical Association. 1998, 108: 79–89. Bibcode:1998JBAA..108...79R. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Condos, Theony. Star Myths of the Greeks and Romans: A Sourcebook. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Phanes Press. 1997: 119–123 [2021-04-14]. ISBN 978-1609256784. 
  4. ^ Ridpath, Ian; Tirion, Wil. Stars and Planets Guide. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 2001: 130. ISBN 978-0-691-17788-5. 
  5. ^ AEEA 天文教育資訊網. 臺中: 國立自然科學博物館. 2006 [2021-04-14]. (原始内容存档于2021-02-25). 
  6. ^ Ridpath, Ian. Ian Ridpath's Star Tales. Star Tales. self-published. [2021-04-14]. 
  7. ^ Henry, Teuira. Tahitian astronomy. Journal of the Polynesian Society. 1907, 16 (2): 101–104 [2021-04-14]. (原始内容存档于2020-02-19). 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Ian Ridpath. Constellations: Andromeda–Indus. Star Tales. self-published. [2021-04-14]. (原始内容存档于2021-04-14). 
  9. ^ Russell, Henry Norris. The New International Symbols for the constellations. Popular Astronomy. 1922, 30: 469. Bibcode:1922PA.....30..469R. 
  10. ^ Crater, Constellation Boundary. The Constellations. International Astronomical Union. [2021-04-14]. (原始内容存档于2021-04-13). 
  11. ^ Wagman, Morton. Lost Stars: Lost, Missing and Troublesome Stars from the Catalogues of Johannes Bayer, Nicholas Louis de Lacaille, John Flamsteed, and Sundry Others. Blacksburg, Virginia: The McDonald & Woodward Publishing Company. 2003: 121–123, 390–392, 506–507. Bibcode:2003lslm.book.....W. ISBN 978-0-939923-78-6. 
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 Arnold, H.J.P; Doherty, Paul; Moore, Patrick. The Photographic Atlas of the Stars. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. 1999: 140 [2021-04-14]. ISBN 978-0-7503-0654-6. 
  13. ^ Bortle, John E. The Bortle Dark-Sky Scale. Sky & Telescope. Sky Publishing Corporation. 2001-02 [2019-04-08]. (原始内容存档于2019-04-08). 
  14. ^ Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; 等. Gaia Data Release 2. Summary of the contents and survey properties. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2018. Bibcode:2018A&A...616A...1G. arXiv:1804.09365. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833051.  VizieR中此天体在盖亚望远镜第二批数据发布的记录
  15. ^ Berio, P.; Merle, T.; Thévenin, F.; Bonneau, D.; Mourard, D.; Chesneau, O.; Delaa, O.; Ligi, R.; Nardetto, N. Chromosphere of K giant stars. Geometrical extent and spatial structure detection. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2011, 535: A59. Bibcode:2011A&A...535A..59B. arXiv:1109.5476. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201117479. 
  16. ^ 16.0 16.1 Kunitzsch, Paul; Smart, Tim. A Dictionary of Modern Star Names: A Short Guide to 254 Star Names and Their Derivations. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Sky Publishing. 2006: 31. ISBN 978-1-931559-44-7. 
  17. ^ Ducati, J. R. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalogue of stellar photometry in Johnson's 11-color system. CDS/ADC Collection of Electronic Catalogues. 2002, 2237. Bibcode:2002yCat.2237....0D. 
  18. ^ Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; 等. Gaia Data Release 2. Summary of the contents and survey properties. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2018. Bibcode:2018A&A...616A...1G. arXiv:1804.09365. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833051.  VizieR中此天体在盖亚望远镜第二批数据发布的记录
  19. ^ Reffert, Sabine; Bergmann, Christoph; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Trifonov, Trifon; Künstler, Andreas. Precise radial velocities of giant stars. VII. Occurrence rate of giant extrasolar planets as a function of mass and metallicity. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2015, 574: 13. Bibcode:2015A&A...574A.116R. arXiv:1412.4634. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201322360. hdl:10722/215277. A116. 
  20. ^ Luck, R. Earle. Abundances in the Local Region. I. G and K Giants. The Astronomical Journal. 2015, 150 (3): 23. Bibcode:2015AJ....150...88L. arXiv:1507.01466. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/88. 88. 
  21. ^ Holberg, J. B.; Oswalt, T. D.; Sion, E. M.; Barstow, M. A.; Burleigh, M. R. Where are all the Sirius-like binary systems?. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2013, 435 (3): 2077. Bibcode:2013MNRAS.435.2077H. arXiv:1307.8047. doi:10.1093/mnras/stt1433. 
  22. ^ Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; 等. Gaia Data Release 2. Summary of the contents and survey properties. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2018. Bibcode:2018A&A...616A...1G. arXiv:1804.09365. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833051.  VizieR中此天体在盖亚望远镜第二批数据发布的记录
  23. ^ Barstow, M. A.; Bond, Howard E.; Burleigh, M. R.; Holberg, J. B. Resolving Sirius-like binaries with the Hubble Space Telescope. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2001, 322 (4): 891–900. Bibcode:2001MNRAS.322..891B. arXiv:astro-ph/0010645. doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04203.x. 
  24. ^ Monks, Neale. Go-To Telescopes Under Suburban Skies. The Patrick Moore Practical Astronomy Series. New York, New York: Springer Science & Business Media. 2010: 113 [2021-04-14]. ISBN 978-1-4419-6851-7. 
  25. ^ 25.0 25.1 De Rosa, R. J.; Patience, J.; Wilson, P. A.; Schneider, A.; Wiktorowicz, S. J.; Vigan, A.; Marois, C.; Song, I.; MacIntosh, B.; Graham, J. R.; Doyon, R.; Bessell, M. S.; Thomas, S.; Lai, O. The VAST Survey – III. The multiplicity of A-type stars within 75 pc. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2013, 437 (2): 1216. Bibcode:2014MNRAS.437.1216D. arXiv:1311.7141. doi:10.1093/mnras/stt1932. 
  26. ^ Kaler, James B. (Jim). Gamma Crateris. Stars. University of Illinois. 2011-04-15 [2021-04-14]. (原始内容存档于2020-11-05). 
  27. ^ Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; 等. Gaia Data Release 2. Summary of the contents and survey properties. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2018. Bibcode:2018A&A...616A...1G. arXiv:1804.09365. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833051.  VizieR中此天体在盖亚望远镜第二批数据发布的记录
  28. ^ Bagnall, Philip M. The Star Atlas Companion: What You Need to Know about the Constellations. New York, New York: Springer. 2012: 181 [2021-04-14]. ISBN 978-1-4614-0830-7. 
  29. ^ Houk, N.; Swift, C. Michigan catalogue of two-dimensional spectral types for the HD Stars. Michigan Spectral Survey. 1999, 5. Bibcode:1999MSS...C05....0H. 
  30. ^ Setiawan, J.; Pasquini, L.; da Silva, L.; Hatzes, A. P.; von der Lühe, O.; Girardi, L.; de Medeiros, J. R.; Guenther, E. Precise radial velocity measurements of G and K giants. Multiple systems and variability trend along the Red Giant Branch. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2004, 421: 241–254. Bibcode:2004A&A...421..241S. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20041042-1. 
  31. ^ 31.0 31.1 McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Boyer, M. L. Fundamental parameters and infrared excesses of Hipparcos Stars. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2012, 427 (1): 343–357. Bibcode:2012MNRAS.427..343M. arXiv:1208.2037. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21873.x.  线上数据(需提供依巴谷卫星编码)
  32. ^ Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; 等. Gaia Data Release 2. Summary of the contents and survey properties. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2018. Bibcode:2018A&A...616A...1G. arXiv:1804.09365. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833051.  VizieR中此天体在盖亚望远镜第二批数据发布的记录
  33. ^ Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; 等. Gaia Data Release 2. Summary of the contents and survey properties. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2018. Bibcode:2018A&A...616A...1G. arXiv:1804.09365. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833051.  VizieR中此天体在盖亚望远镜第二批数据发布的记录
  34. ^ Houk, Nancy; Smith-Moore, M. Michigan catalogue of two-dimensional spectral types for the HD stars 4. Ann Arbor: Dept. of Astronomy, University of Michigan. 1978. Bibcode:1988mcts.book.....H. 
  35. ^ Alves, David R. K-Band calibration of the red clump luminosity. The Astrophysical Journal. 2000, 539 (2): 732–741. Bibcode:2000ApJ...539..732A. arXiv:astro-ph/0003329. doi:10.1086/309278. 
  36. ^ Pasinetti-Fracassini, L.E.; Pastori, L.; Covino, S.; Pozzi, A. Catalogue of Stellar Diameters (CADARS). Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2001-02, 367 (2): 521–524. Bibcode:2001A&A...367..521P. arXiv:astro-ph/0012289. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20000451. 
  37. ^ Mason, B. D.; Wycoff, G. L.; Hartkopf, W. I.; Douglass, G. G.; Worley, C. E. The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog. The Astronomical Journal. 2014, 122 (6): 3466–3671 [2021-04-14]. Bibcode:2001AJ....122.3466M. doi:10.1086/323920. (原始内容存档于2021-03-04). 
  38. ^ Eggen, Olin J. The Sirius Supercluster and missing mass near the Sun. The Astronomical Journal. 1998, 116 (2): 782–788. Bibcode:1998AJ....116..782E. doi:10.1086/300465. 
  39. ^ 39.0 39.1 King, Jeremy R.; Villarreal, Adam R.; Soderblom, David R.; Gulliver, Austin F.; Adelman, Saul J. Stellar Kinematic Groups. II. A Reexamination of the Membership, Activity, and Age of the Ursa Major Group (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 2003, 125 (4): 1980–2017 [2021-04-14]. Bibcode:2003AJ....125.1980K. doi:10.1086/368241. (原始内容存档于2020-11-05). 
  40. ^ Tooke, Owen. Variables: What Are They and Why Observe Them?. AAVSO. [2021-04-14]. (原始内容存档于2021-04-09). 
  41. ^ Samus', N. N.; Kazarovets, E. V.; Durlevich, O. V.; Kireeva, N. N.; Pastukhova, E. N. General catalogue of variable stars: Version GCVS 5.1. Astronomy Reports. 2017-01-01, 61 (1): 80–88 [2021-04-14]. Bibcode:2017ARep...61...80S. ISSN 1063-7729. doi:10.1134/S1063772917010085. (原始内容存档于2020-07-29). 
  42. ^ Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; 等. Gaia Data Release 2. Summary of the contents and survey properties. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2018. Bibcode:2018A&A...616A...1G. arXiv:1804.09365. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833051.  VizieR中此天体在盖亚望远镜第二批数据发布的记录
  43. ^ Sion, Edward M.; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Long, Knox S.; Szkody, Paula; Knigge, Christian; Hubeny, Ivan; deMartino, Domitilla; Godon, Patrick. Hubble Space Telescope STIS spectroscopy of long-period dwarf novae in quiescence. The Astrophysical Journal. 2008, 681 (1): 543–553. Bibcode:2008ApJ...681..543S. arXiv:0801.4703. doi:10.1086/586699. 
  44. ^ van Leeuwen, F. Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2007, 474 (2): 653–664. Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V. arXiv:0708.1752. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357. 
  45. ^ A Galactic Traffic Jam. [2021-04-14]. (原始内容存档于2021-01-30). 
  46. ^ Ribas, Álvaro; Macías, Enrique; Espaillat, Catherine C.; Duchêne, Gaspard. Long-lived protoplanetary disks in multiple systems: The VLA view of HD 98800. The Astrophysical Journal. 2018, 865 (1): 77. Bibcode:2018ApJ...865...77R. arXiv:1808.02493. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aad81b. 
  47. ^ Heinze, Aren N.; Metchev, Stanimir; Apai, Daniel; Flateau, Davin; Kurtev, Radostin; Marley, Mark; Radigan, Jacqueline; Burgasser, Adam J.; Artigau, Étienne; Plavchan, Peter. Weather on other worlds I: Detection of periodic variability in the L3 dwarf DENIS-P J1058.7-1548 with precise multi-wavelength photometry. The Astrophysical Journal. 2013, 767 (2): 173. Bibcode:2013ApJ...767..173H. arXiv:1303.2948. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/767/2/173. 
  48. ^ Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; 等. Gaia Data Release 2. Summary of the contents and survey properties. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2018. Bibcode:2018A&A...616A...1G. arXiv:1804.09365. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833051.  VizieR中此天体在盖亚望远镜第二批数据发布的记录
  49. ^ Peek, John Asher; Johnson, Kathryn M. G.; Fischer, Debra A.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Henry, Gregory W.; Howard, Andrew W.; Wright, Jason T.; Lowe, Thomas B.; Reffert, Sabine. Old, rich, and eccentric: two jovian planets orbiting evolved metal-rich stars. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 2009, 121 (880): 613–620. Bibcode:2009PASP..121..613P. JSTOR 599862. arXiv:0904.2786. doi:10.1086/599862. 
  50. ^ Marmier, M.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.; Mayor, M.; Pepe, F.; Queloz, D.; Lovis, C.; Naef, D.; Santos, N. C.; Alonso, R.; Alves, S.; Berthet, S.; Chazelas, B.; Demory, B.-O.; Dumusque, X.; Eggenberger, A.; Figueira, P.; Gillon, M.; Hagelberg, J.; Lendl, M.; Mardling, R. A.; Mégevand, D.; Neveu, M.; Sahlmann, J.; Sosnowska, D.; Tewes, M.; Triaud, A. H. M. J. The CORALIE survey for southern extrasolar planets XVII. New and updated long period and massive planets. Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2013, 551. A90. Bibcode:2013A&A...551A..90M. arXiv:1211.6444. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219639. 
  51. ^ Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; 等. Gaia Data Release 2. Summary of the contents and survey properties. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2018. Bibcode:2018A&A...616A...1G. arXiv:1804.09365. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833051.  VizieR中此天体在盖亚望远镜第二批数据发布的记录
  52. ^ Butler, R. Paul; Vogt, Steven S.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Fischer, Debra A.; Henry, Gregory W.; Apps, Kevin. Planetary companions to the metal-rich Stars BD −10°3166 and HD 52265. The Astrophysical Journal. 2000, 545 (1): 504–511. Bibcode:2000ApJ...545..504B. doi:10.1086/317796. 
  53. ^ Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; 等. Gaia Data Release 2. Summary of the contents and survey properties. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2018. Bibcode:2018A&A...616A...1G. arXiv:1804.09365. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833051.  VizieR中此天体在盖亚望远镜第二批数据发布的记录
  54. ^ Smalley, B.; Anderson, D. R.; Cameron, A. Collier; Hellier, C.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Queloz, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; West, R. G.; Bentley, S. J.; Enoch, B.; Gillon, M.; Lister, T. A.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Segransan, D.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Udry, S.; Wheatley, P. J.; Wood, P. L.; Bento, J. WASP-34b: a near-grazing transiting sub-Jupiter-mass exoplanet in a hierarchical triple system. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2011, 526: 5. Bibcode:2011A&A...526A.130S. arXiv:1012.2278. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201015992. A130. 
  55. ^ Torrealba, G.; Koposov, S. E.; Belokurov, V.; Irwin, M. The feeble giant. Discovery of a large and diffuse Milky Way dwarf galaxy in the constellation of Crater. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2016, 459 (3): 2370–2378. Bibcode:2016MNRAS.459.2370T. arXiv:1601.07178. doi:10.1093/mnras/stw733. 
  56. ^ Croswell, K. Never-before-seen galaxy spotted orbiting the Milky Way. New Scientist. 2016-04-14 [2021-04-14]. (原始内容存档于2021-02-26). 
  57. ^ Bakich, Michael E. 1,001 Celestial Wonders to See Before You Die: The Best Sky Objects for Star Gazers. The Patrick Moore Practical Astronomy Series. New York, New York: Springer Science+Business Media. 2010: 79–80 [2021-04-14]. ISBN 978-1-4419-1777-5. 
  58. ^ A Galactic Gem – ESO's FORS2 instrument captures stunning details of spiral galaxy NGC 3981. European Southern Observatory. 2018-09-12 [2021-04-14]. 
  59. ^ Tully, R. Brent. The Local Supercluster. The Astrophysical Journal. 1982, 257: 389–422. Bibcode:1982ApJ...257..389T. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.1086/159999. 
  60. ^ Chandra & XMM-Newton Provide Direct Measurement of Distant Black Hole's Spin. Chandra X-ray Center. 2014-03-05 [2021-04-14]. (原始内容存档于2021-04-08). 
  61. ^ Reeves, J. N.; Watson, D.; Osborne, J. P.; Pounds, K. A.; O'Brien, P. T.; Short, A. D. T.; Turner, M. J. L.; Watson, M. G.; Mason, K. O.; Ehle, M.; Schartel, N. The signature of supernova ejecta measured in the X-ray afterglow of the Gamma Ray Burst 011211 (PDF). Nature. 2002-04-04, 416 (6880): 512–515 [2011-10-06]. Bibcode:2002Natur.416..512R. PMID 11932738. arXiv:astro-ph/0204075. doi:10.1038/416512a. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2011-10-06). 
  62. ^ P. M. Vreeswijk; S. L. Ellison; C. Ledoux; R. A. M. J. Wijers; J. P. U. Fynbo; P. Møller; A. Henden; J. Hjorth; G. Masi; E. Rol; B. L. Jensen; N. Tanvir; A. Levan; J. M. Castro Cerón; J. Gorosabel; A. J. Castro-Tirado; A. S. Fruchter; C. Kouveliotou; I. Burud; J. Rhoads; N. Masetti; E. Palazzi; E. Pian; H. Pedersen; L. Kaper; A. Gilmore; P. Kilmartin; J. V. Buckle; M. S. Seigar; D. H. Hartmann; K. Lindsay; E. P. J. van den Heuvel. The host of GRB 030323 at z = 3.372: A very high column density DLA system with a low metallicity. Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2004, 419 (3): 927–940. Bibcode:2004A&A...419..927V. arXiv:astro-ph/0403080. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20040086. 
  63. ^ Levy, David H. David Levy's Guide to Observing Meteor Showers. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. 2008: 105 [2021-04-13]. ISBN 978-0-521-69691-3. 

外部链接编辑

天球赤道座標  11h 00m 00s,−16° 00′ 00″