無政府共產主義

(重定向自无政府共产主义

无政府共产主义[a][15][16](英語:anarcho-communism[17][18][19][20])是一种支持废除国家资本主义僱傭勞動等级制度[21]及生产资料私有制(但无政府共产主义尊重在集体所有制英语Collective ownership下的个人财产[22]),同时拥护生产资料公有制[23][24]及由工人委員會所构成的横向网络所统领下依照各盡所能、各取所需进行直接民主制[25][26]政治哲学思想流派英语Anarchist schools of thought。其中的一些流派,比如暴动无政府主义英语insurrectionary anarchism利己主义和激进个人主义影响颇深,并认为无政府共产主义是实现个人自由的最好社会组织形式[27][28][29][30]。大多数无政府共产主义者视无政府共产主义为一种调和个人与社会之间矛盾的方式[31][32][33][34][35]

无政府共产主义发展自法国大革命后的激进英语Political radicalism社会主义潮流[36][37],但直到第一国际在意大利的分部成立后才成型[38]。俄国思想家克魯泡特金在無政府共產主義中影响力十分巨大,并影响到了其后的内部分化[39]。迄今为止,最知名的无政府共产主义社群例包含1936年西班牙革命英语Spanish Revolution of 1936中的无政府工团主义地区[40]及在1918年至1921年俄国内战中由乌克兰革命者内斯托尔·伊万诺维奇·马赫诺所统领的乌克兰自由地区。乌克兰自由地区受克鲁泡特金著作中的无政府共产主义及集體無政府主義影响极大,且一度击退白军红军,统治乌克兰的大多数地区,但最终被布尔什维克所占领[41]

1929年,韩国无政府共产主义联合会在崇尚无政府主义独立行动主义將軍金佐鎮的支持下一度建立了一个无政府共产主义社会英语Korean People's Association in Manchuria,但最终随着大日本帝国暗杀了金佐鎮并自南方入侵该地区,同时中國國民黨从北部入侵该地区,该地区很快便丧失了自治权,最终被并入大日本帝国的附庸满洲国。在1936年开始的西班牙内战中,西班牙无政府主义者英语Anarchism in Spain经过在西班牙革命期间的努力和影响,一度在阿拉贡的多数地区建立了一个无政府主义社会,并且将无政府共产主义传播至了雷凡特、安达卢西亚及加泰罗尼亚,但最终被佛朗哥所统领的國民軍所击败[42]

历史编辑

早期先驱编辑

 
挖掘派通常被视为第一批无政府主义实践者,他们在英國內戰前后共同持有他们的土地和资源
 
拉洪坦男爵英语Louis-Armand de Lom d'Arce de Lahontan, Baron de Lahontan1703年的小说记录了作者在美国各土著部落和文化中生活的经历。小说探讨了各种农业社会主义英语agrarian socialism社会以及它们如何通过集体所有制为所有居民提供财产。这些社会中反复出现的内容包括它们的非等级结构、早期的平等主义生活风格以及互助英语Mutual aid (organization theory)在维持精神健康方面发挥的重要作用
 
席爾凡·馬雷夏爾英语Sylvain Maréchal,18世纪无神论哲学家,他的平等主義信仰预示着无政府主义和空想社会主义意识形态的发展

無政府共產主義的雛形最早可追溯到17世紀的英國內戰和18世紀的法國大革命。屬於英國激進運動挖掘派一員的傑拉德·溫斯坦利在他1649年的小冊子《新正义法典》中寫道:「不應有買賣、不應有集市或市場,但整個地球應該是每個人共有的寶藏」、「不應有統治他人的統治者,但每個人應是自己的統治者。」[43][36]

挖掘派抵制统治阶级和国王的暴政,以合作的方式完成工作,管理供应并提高社会生产力。由于挖掘派建立的公社没有私有财产,没有经济交换(所有物品、货物和服务都由集体所有),他们的公社可以被称为早期的共产主义社区,这些公社分布在英格兰的农村地区。

第一次工业革命之前,整个欧洲大陆盛行土地和财产共同所有的风气,但挖掘派因其反对君主统治的斗争而显得与众不同。他们在查理一世倒台后又因提倡工人自治而再次兴起。

1703年,路易·拉洪坦英语Louis-Armand de Lom d'Arce de Lahontan, Baron de Lahontan在其小说《北美新航路英语New Voyages to North America》一书中概述了北美大陆的原住民社区是如何合作和组织的。拉洪坦发现殖民前北美的农业社会和社群无论是经济结构角度还是从没有任何国家角度都与欧洲君主制、不平等的国家都完全不同。他写道,土著人处于“无政府状态”的生活中,这是这个词第一次被用来表示混乱以外的东西[44]。他具体写道,殖民前的北美没有牧师、法院、法律、警察、国家部长,也没有财产的区分,因此他们都是平等的,都在一起繁荣,没有办法区分贫富[45]

法國大革命期間,席爾凡·馬雷夏爾英语Sylvain Maréchal在《平等者宣言》中,要求「共同享有地球的產物」並期待「貧富、大小、主僕、統治與被統治之間的噁心差別」的消失[46][36]。马雷夏尔不仅对财产的不平等分配持批评态度,而且对宗教如何经常被用来为福音派的不道德行为辩护持批评态度。他认为宗教和后来被称为资本主义的东西是同一枚腐朽硬币的两面。他曾说:“不要害怕你的上帝——要害怕你自己。你是你自己的麻烦和欢乐的创造者。天堂和地狱都在你自己的灵魂里”。

席尔凡·马雷夏尔同时参与了平等者的阴谋英语Conspiracy of the Equals,尝试推翻法国君主制并建立一个无国家、农业社会主义的乌托邦,但最终失败。他与格拉古·巴贝夫合作,一同描写一个无政府主义社区可能是什么样子,以及如何建立这个社区。尽管两人并不总是在所有事上意见一致,特别是马雷夏尔认为平等比艺术更重要这一点上,他们两人仍是朋友。

约瑟夫·迪亚契与1848年革命编辑

约瑟夫·迪亚契是早期的無政府共產主義者,也是第一位稱自己為自由意志主義者的人。[47]他提出與普魯東不同的看法:「工人無權於他或她勞動所得的產物,但有權滿足他或她的需求,無論其性質為何」。[36][48]无政府主义史学家麦克斯·奈特劳英语Max Nettlau自由意志共产主义在历史上第一次被使用是在1880年11月法国的一个无政府主义大会上,该大会采用了这个词来更清楚地描述其理论[49]。随后法国无政府主义记者、四卷本《无政府主义百科全书》的建立者、主编塞巴斯蒂安·富尔英语Sébastien Faure于1895年创办了《自由意志主义》周报[50]

迪亚契反对进行“伟大的人民建筑师的信徒”和“人民、庸俗的大众”划分的布朗基主义,并反对社会共和主义的所有变种,反对一人独裁,反对“无产阶级先进人士的独裁”。对于最后一种“一小群无产阶级先进人士的独裁”,他具体写道:“由工人组成的独裁委员会无疑是最自负、最无能,因而也是最反革命的东西[……](由可疑的敌人掌权总比由可疑的朋友掌权要来的好)”。他认为“无政府倡议”、“理性意愿”和“每个人的自主性”是无产阶级社会革命的条件,其第一个表现就是1848年6月的街垒(见1848年革命)。在迪亚契看来,由叛乱产生的政府仍然是对无产阶级自由倡议的反动束缚。或者说,这种自由的主动性只有通过群众摆脱“威权偏见”才能产生和发展,而国家正是通过这种偏见在其代表和委托的主要职能中进行自我复制。迪亚契写道:“我所理解的政府是指所有的代表,即人民以外的所有权力”,必须在超越政治的过程中用“直接拥有他们主权的人民”或“有组织的公社”来取代它。对迪亚契来说,共产无政府主义乌托邦除了弥补无产者对“社会科学”的无知外,还将实现促使每个无产者探索自己的人类潜能[39]

第一国际编辑

集體無政府主義者主張勞動的報酬,但給予了轉變為依據需求作分配的共產制度的後革命過渡時期的可能性。受到巴枯寧的影響,詹姆士·季佑姆英语James Guillaume在論文《Ideas on Social Organization》中提到:「當……生產超越了消費……每個人將從社會豐富的物品儲備中得到所需,不用擔憂耗盡;而且道德情操將在自由與平等間高度發展,工人將會阻止,或大量減少濫用與浪費。」[51]

经济学理论编辑

无政府共产主义的理论核心是废除货币、价格和僱傭勞動。财富的分配以自决的需求为基础,人们可以自由地从事他们认为最充实的活动,不必再从事无法体现他们气质和才能的工作[35]

无政府共产主义者认为,没有任何有效的方法能衡量一个人对经济贡献的价值,因为所有的财富都是所有人及之前所有人的共同产品[52]。例如,如果不考虑交通、食物、水、住所、休息、机器效率、情绪等等对生产的贡献,就无法衡量一个工厂工人的日常生产价值。要真正赋予任何东西以定量的经济价值,就需要考虑到大量的外部因素和贡献因素——特别是当前或过去的劳动对未来劳动效率提升这一点。克鲁泡特金称:“要把这些人各个间的工作划出一个区别来,这是完全不可能的。依照他们工作的结果来估量他们的工作,是不合理的;把他们的全工作分作若干部分,以劳动的钟点来算分数,也是不合理的。只有一件事情是对的:就是把需要(欲求)放在工作之上,不管工作如何,只管需要如何,第一应该承认一切参加生产做工的人,都有生活的权利,其次应该承认他们的安乐的权利”[53][54]

 
彼得·阿列克谢耶维奇·克鲁泡特金所著的《面包与自由》提出了无政府共产主义的理想经济愿景

共产无政府主义与集體無政府主義有许多相似点,但两者并不相同。集体无政府主义认同集体所有制,而共产无政府主义则直接否定了所有制概念本身,转而支持使用制的概念[55]。而且,“地主”和“佃户”之间的抽象关系也将不复存在,因为这种所有权被无政府共产主义者认为是在有条件的法律胁迫下发生的,并不是占据建筑物或空间的绝对必要条件(知识产权也将消失,因为它们也是一种私有财产的形式)。除了认为租金和其他费用是剥削性的,无政府共产主义者还认为这些是迫使人们去执行无关事务的压力。例如,他们质疑为什么一个人每天必须工作“X小时”才能仅仅居住在某个地方。因此,他们认为,与其为了赚取工资而有条件地工作,不如直接为眼前的目标工作[35]

哲学上的分歧编辑

生产积极性编辑

无政府共产主义者反对“雇佣劳动是必要的,因为人的‘人性’是懒惰和自私的”的观点。他们经常指出,即使是所谓的“游手好闲的富人”有时也能找到有用的事情做,尽管他们的所有需求其实都由他人的劳动满足。无政府共产主义者一般不同意预先设定“人性”的信念,认为人类文化和行为在很大程度上是由社會化生产方式决定的。包括彼得·阿列克谢耶维奇·克鲁泡特金在内的许多无政府共产主义者认为人类的人类的进化趋势为了互利和生存而相互合作英语evolution of morality,而不是作为孤独的竞争者存在,克鲁泡特金曾在著作中详细论证了这一观点[56]

参见编辑

注释编辑

  1. ^ 或称共产无政府主义[1](英語:communist anarchism[2][3])、自由共产主义[4][5](英語:free communism[6])、无政府主义共产主义(英語:anarchist communism[7][8])、自由意志共产主义[9](英語:libertarian communism[10][11][12][13][14]

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ W Haixia. 无政府主义思想与乡村改造的实践回顾——从消去的无政府主义提取当代价值. Rural China. 2014-06-07, 11 (2): 301–327 [2021-02-20]. doi:10.1163/22136746-12341256. 
  2. ^ "The Schism Between Individualist and Communist Anarchism"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) by Wendy McElroy.
  3. ^ "Anarchist communism is also known as anarcho-communism, communist anarchism, or, sometimes, libertarian communism". "Anarchist communism - an introduction" by Jacques Roux.
  4. ^ 羽离子. 欧文的实验村——新兰那克的今昔. 《湖北民族学院学报(哲学社会科学版)》. 2003, 21 (3): 6–9 [2021-02-20]. doi:10.13501/j.cnki.42-1328/c.2003.03.002. (原始内容存档于2019-06-15). 
  5. ^ 自由共产主义简介. libcom.org. [2021-02-24]. (原始内容存档于2021-01-24). 
  6. ^ Price, Wayne (2002). "What is Anarchist Communism?"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆). The Anarchist Library. Retrieved 2019-08-04. "Instead, Kropotkin proposed that a large city, during a revolution, “could organize itself on the lines of free communism; the city guaranteeing to every inhabitant dwelling, food, and clothing...in exchange for...five hour’s work; and...all those things which would be considered as luxuries might be obtained by everyone if he joins for the other half of the day all sorts of free associations....” (p.p. 118–119)".
  7. ^ Bolloten, Burnett. The Spanish Civil War: Revolution and Counterrevolution. UNC Press Books. 1991: 65 [25 March 2011]. ISBN 978-0-8078-1906-7. (原始内容存档于2020-08-01). 
  8. ^ Price, Wayne (2002). "What is Anarchist Communism?"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆). The Anarchist Library. Retrieved 2019-08-04.
  9. ^ 反老孟; 黄璞叶. 黑命攸关|运动与暴力之辩:“糟得很”还是“好得很”?. 澎湃新闻. 2020-06-25 [2021-02-24]. (原始内容存档于2021-04-23). 
  10. ^ According to anarchist historian Max Nettlau, the first use of the term "libertarian communism" was in November 1880, when a French anarchist congress employed it to more clearly identify its doctrines. Nettlau, Max. A Short History of Anarchism. Freedom Press. 1996: 145. ISBN 978-0-900384-89-9. 
  11. ^ "Anarchist communism is also known as anarcho-communism, communist anarchism, or, sometimes, libertarian communism". "Anarchist communism - an introduction"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) by Libcom.org.
  12. ^ "The terms libertarian communism and anarchist communism thus became synonymous within the international anarchist movement as a result of the close connection they had in Spain (with libertarian communism becoming the prevalent term)". "Anarchist Communism & Libertarian Communism" by Gruppo Comunista Anarchico di Firenze. from "L'informatore di parte", No.4, October 1979, quarterly journal of the Gruppo Comunista Anarchico di Firenze页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆).
  13. ^ "The 'Manifesto of Libertarian Communism' was written in 1953 by Georges Fontenis for the Federation Communiste Libertaire of France. It is one of the key texts of the anarchist-communist current". "Manifesto of Libertarian Communism"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) by Georges Fontenis.
  14. ^ "In 1926 a group of exiled Russian anarchists in France, the Delo Truda (Workers' Cause) group, published this pamphlet. It arose not from some academic study but from their experiences in the 1917 Russian revolution". "The Organizational Platform of the Libertarian Communists"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) by Delo Truda.
  15. ^ 于义永. 革命后的趋新:师复的无政府构想. 《社会科学前沿》. 2019年, 8 (4) [2021-02-18]. (原始内容存档于2021-04-21). 
  16. ^ 潘婉明. 在地 ∙ 跨域 ∙ 身体移动 ∙ 知识传播: 马来亚共产党史的再思考. 《华人研究国际学报》. 2011, 3 (2): 57–71 [2021-02-20]. doi:10.1142/S1793724811000162. 
  17. ^ Kinna, Ruth. The Bloomsbury Companion to Anarchism. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. 2012-06-28: 329 [2021-02-17]. ISBN 978-1-4411-4270-2. (原始内容存档于2021-01-15) (英语). 
  18. ^ Hodges, Donald C. Sandino's Communism: Spiritual Politics for the Twenty-First Century. University of Texas Press. 2014-02-01: 3 [2021-02-17]. ISBN 978-0-292-71564-6. (原始内容存档于2021-07-22) (英语). 
  19. ^ Wetherly, Paul. Political Ideologies. Oxford University Press. 2017: 130, 137, 424 [2021-02-17]. ISBN 978-0-19-872785-9. (原始内容存档于2021-07-22) (英语). 
  20. ^ Iliopoulos, Christos. Nietzsche & Anarchism: An Elective Affinity and a Nietzschean reading of the December '08 revolt in Athens. Vernon Press. 2019-10-15: 35 [2021-02-17]. ISBN 978-1-62273-647-8. (原始内容存档于2021-07-22) (英语). 
  21. ^ Anarchist communism - an introduction. libcom.org. [2020-11-10]. (原始内容存档于2021-01-23). 
  22. ^ "The revolution abolishes private ownership of the means of production and distribution, and with it goes capitalistic business. Personal possession remains only in the things you use. Thus, your watch is your own, but the watch factory belongs to the people". Alexander Berkman. "What Is Communist Anarchism?" [1]页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆).
  23. ^ Mayne, Alan James. From Politics Past to Politics Future: An Integrated Analysis of Current and Emergent Paradigms. Greenwood Publishing Group. 1999 [2010-09-20]. ISBN 978-0-275-96151-0. (原始内容存档于2021-03-27). 
  24. ^ Anarchism for Know-It-Alls By Know-It-Alls For Know-It-Alls, For Know-It-Alls. Filiquarian Publishing, LLC. 2008-01: 14 [2010-09-20]. ISBN 978-1-59986-218-7. 
  25. ^ Fabbri, Luigi. "Anarchism and Communism." Northeastern Anarchist #4. 1922. 2002-10-13页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆).
  26. ^ Makhno, Mett, Arshinov, Valevski, Linski (Dielo Trouda). "The Organizational Platform of the Libertarian Communists". 1926. Constructive Section: available here页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆).
  27. ^ Christopher Gray, Leaving the Twentieth Century, p. 88.
  28. ^ "Towards the creative Nothing" by页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆Renzo Novatore
  29. ^ Post-left anarcho-communist Bob Black after analysing insurrectionary anarcho-communist Luigi Galleani's view on anarcho-communism went as far as saying that "communism is the final fulfillment of individualism...The apparent contradiction between individualism and communism rests on a misunderstanding of both...Subjectivity is also objective: the individual really is subjective. It is nonsense to speak of "emphatically prioritizing the social over the individual,"...You may as well speak of prioritizing the chicken over the egg. Anarchy is a "method of individualization." It aims to combine the greatest individual development with the greatest communal unity."Bob Black. Nightmares of Reason页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆).
  30. ^ "Modern Communists are more individualistic than Stirner. To them, not merely religion, morality, family and State are spooks, but property also is no more than a spook, in whose name the individual is enslaved - and how enslaved!...Communism thus creates a basis for the liberty and Eigenheit of the individual. I am a Communist because I am an Individualist. Fully as heartily the Communists concur with Stirner when he puts the word take in place of demand - that leads to the dissolution of property, to expropriation. Individualism and Communism go hand in hand". "Stirner: The Ego and His Own"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆). Max Baginski. Mother Earth. Vol. 2. No. 3 May 1907.
  31. ^ "Communism is the one which guarantees the greatest amount of individual liberty — provided that the idea that begets the community be Liberty, Anarchy...Communism guarantees economic freedom better than any other form of association, because it can guarantee wellbeing, even luxury, in return for a few hours of work instead of a day's work". "Communism and Anarchy"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) by Peter Kropotkin.
  32. ^ "This other society will be libertarian communism, in which social solidarity and free individuality find their full expression, and in which these two ideas develop in perfect harmony". Organisational Platform of the Libertarian Communists Archived 2011-07-29 at WebCite by Dielo Truda (Workers' Cause).
  33. ^ "I see the dichotomies made between individualism and communism, individual revolt and class struggle, the struggle against human exploitation and the exploitation of nature as false dichotomies and feel that those who accept them are impoverishing their own critique and struggle". "My Perspectives" 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2010-12-02. by Willful Disobedience Vol. 2, No. 12.
  34. ^ L. Susan Brown, The Politics of Individualism, Black Rose Books (2002).
  35. ^ 35.0 35.1 35.2 L. Susan Brown, "Does Work Really Work?"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆).
  36. ^ 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 Robert Graham, Anarchism - A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas - Volume One: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300CE to 1939), Black Rose Books, 2005
  37. ^ "Chapter 41: The Anarchists"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) in The Great French Revolution 1789-1793 by Peter Kropotkin.
  38. ^ Nunzio Pernicone, Italian Anarchism 1864–1892, pp. 111-113, AK Press 2009.
  39. ^ 39.0 39.1 "Anarchist-Communism" by Alain Pengam: "This inability to break definitively with collectivism in all its forms also exhibited itself over the question of the workers' movement, which divided anarchist-communism into a number of tendencies."
  40. ^ "This process of education and class organization, more than any single factor in Spain, produced the collectives. And to the degree that the CNT-FAI (for the two organizations became fatally coupled after July 1936) exercised the major influence in an area, the collectives proved to be generally more durable, communist and resistant to Stalinist counterrevolution than other republican-held areas of Spain." Murray Bookchin页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆). To Remember Spain: The Anarchist and Syndicalist Revolution of 1936]
  41. ^ Skirda, Alexandre (2004). Nestor Makhno: Anarchy's Cossack. AK Press. pp. 86. 236–238.
  42. ^ Murray Bookchin页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆). To Remember Spain: The Anarchist and Syndicalist Revolution of 1936
  43. ^ "The first Adam is the wisdom and power of flesh broke out and sate down in the chair of rule and dominion, in one part of mankind over another. And this is the beginner of particular interest, buying and selling the earth from one particular hand to another, saying, This is mine, upholding this particular propriety by a law of government of his own making, and thereby restraining other fellow creatures from seeking nourishment from their mother earth. So that though a man was bred up in a Land, yet he must not worke for himself where he would sit down. But from Adam; that is, for such a one that had bought part of the Land, or came to it by inheritance of his deceased parents, and called it his own Land: So that he that had no Land, was to work for those for small wages, that called the Land theirs; and thereby some are lifted up into the chair of tyranny, and others trod under the foot-stool of misery, as if the earth were made for a few, no for all men". Gerrard Winstanley (1649). The New Law of Righteousness页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆).
  44. ^ Louis Armand, Baron de Lahontan (1703). New Voyages to North America. "Preface". Library of the University of Illinois. p. 11. "This I only mention by the bye, in this my Preface to the Reader, whom I pray the Heavens to Crown with Profperity, in preferving him from having any bufinefs to adjufl with mofi of the Miniflers of State, and Priefts; for let them be never fo faulty, they'll flill be faid to be in the right, till fuch time as Anarchy be introduc'd amongft us, as well as the Americans, among whom the forrycfl fellow thinks himfelf a better Man, than a Chancellor of France. Thefe People are happy in being fcreen'd from the tricks and fliifts of Miniflers, who are always Maflers where-ever they come. I envy the fiate of a poor Savage, who tramples upon Laws, and pays Homage to no Scepter. I wish I could fpend the reft of my Life in his Hutt, and fo be no longer expos'd to the chagrin of bending the knee to a fet of Men, that facrifice the publick good to their private intereft, and are born to plague honeft Men".
  45. ^ Louis Armand, Baron de Lahontan (1703). New Voyages to North America. "Introduction". Library of the University of Illinois. p. xxxv. "The vogue of the baron's book was immediate and widespread, and must have soon replenished his slender purse. In simple sentences, easily read and comprehended by the masses, Their Lahontan recounted not only his own adventures, and the important events that occurred beneath his eyes in the much-talked-of region of New France, but drew a picture of the simple delights of life in the wilderness, more graphic than had yet been presented to the European world. His idyllic account of manners and customs among the savages who dwelt in the heart of the American forest, or whose rude huts of bark or skin or matted reeds nestled by the banks of its far-reaching waterways, was a picture which fascinated the "average reader" in that romantic age, eager to learn of new lands and strange peoples. In the pages of Lahontan the child of nature was depicted as a creature of rare beauty of form, a rational being thinking deep thoughts on great subjects, but freed from the trammels and frets of civilization, bound by none of its restrictions, obedient only to the will and caprice of his own nature. In this American Arcady were no courts, laws, police, ministers of An American state, or other hampering paraphernalia of government; each man was a law unto himself, and did what seemed good in his own eyes. Here were no monks and priests, with their strictures and asceticisms, but a natural, sweetly-reasonable religion. Here no vulgar love of money pursued the peaceful native in his leafy home; without distinction of property, the rich man was he who might give most generously. Aboriginal marriage was no fettering life-covenant, but an arrangement pleasing the convenience of the contracting parties. Man, innocent and unadorned, passed his life in the pleasures of the chase, warring only in the cause of the nation, scorning the supposititious benefits of civilization, and free from its diseases, misery, sycophancy, and oppression. In short, the American wilderness was the seat of serenity and noble philosophy".
  46. ^ "The Agrarian law, or the partitioning of land, was the spontaneous demand of some unprincipled soldiers, of some towns moved more by their instinct than by reason. We lean towards something more sublime and more just: the common good or the community of property! No more individual property in land: the land belongs to no one. We demand, we want, the common enjoyment of the fruits of the land: the fruits belong to all". Sylvain Maréchal (1796). Manifesto of the Equals.页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆Marxist Internet Archive.
  47. ^ Joseph Déjacque, De l'être-humain mâle et femelle - Lettre à P.J. Proudhon par Joseph Déjacque页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) (in French)
  48. ^ "l'Echange", article in Le Libertaire no 6,1858-09-21, New York. [2]页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  49. ^ Nettlau, Max. A Short History of Anarchism. Freedom Press. 1996: 145. ISBN 978-0-900384-89-9. 
  50. ^ Nettlau, Max. A Short History of Anarchism. Freedom Press. 1996: 162. ISBN 978-0-900384-89-9. 
  51. ^ James Guillaume, Ideas on Social Organization页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  52. ^ Alexander Berkman. What Is Communist Anarchism? [3]页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  53. ^ Kropotkin, Peter. "The Collectivist Wage System". The Conquest of Bread, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York and London, 1906, Chapter 13, Section 4
  54. ^ 克鲁泡特金. 第十三章 集产主义的工钱制度. 中文马克思主义文库. [2021-11-04]. (原始内容存档于2021-11-06). 
  55. ^ Alexander Berkman. What is Anarchism?, p. 217
  56. ^ Peter Kropotkin Mutual Aid: A Factor in Evolution [4]页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆