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普爾曼大罷工

普爾曼大罷工是美國在1894年5月11日的全國性鐵路罷工行動,從而影響美國勞動法英语United States labor law。其中美國鐵路工會英语American Railway Union不滿經營鐵路運輸的普爾曼公司英语Pullman Company對立,而美國總統格羅弗·克里夫蘭領導的美國聯邦政府也介入其中。衝突起源於5月11日,近4,000名普爾曼公司僱員因為工資調降,而在芝加哥普爾曼英语Pullman, Chicago發動野貓罷工。不過最終罷工和抵制行動,迫使密西根州底特律以西的大部分貨運和客運都無法運作。

普爾曼大罷工
Pullman strikers outside Arcade Building.jpg
在普爾曼大罷工期間,美國鐵路工會成員與伊利諾州陸軍國民警衛隊英语Illinois Army National Guard部隊對峙。
日期 1894年5月11日
地點 美國芝加哥普爾曼英语Pullman, Chicago爆發,後來遍及全國。
目標 承認
方法 罷工抗議示威
結果 行動失敗
衝突方
美國鐵路工會英语American Railway Union
鐵路工人
指揮人物
人數
250,000人
12,000人
傷亡人數
死亡人數:30人
受傷人數:57人

參見编辑

參考文獻编辑

  • Cleveland, Grover. The Government and the Chicago Strike of 1894 [1904]. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1913.
  • DeForest, Walter S. The Periodical Press and the Pullman Strike: An Analysis of the Coverage and Interpretation of the Railroad Strike of 1894 by Eight Journals of Opinion and Reportage MA thesis. University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1973.
  • Ginger, Ray. The Bending Cross: A Biography of Eugene V. Debs. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1949.
  • Hirsch, Susan Eleanor. After the Strike: A Century of Labor Struggle at Pullman. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2003.
  • Lindsey, Almont. The Pullman Strike: The Story of a Unique Experiment and of a Great Labor Upheaval. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1943.
  • Lindsey, Almont. "Paternalism and the Pullman Strike," American Historical Review, Vol. 44, No. 2 (Jan., 1939), pp. 272–289 in JSTOR
  • Nevins, Allan Nevins. Grover Cleveland: A Study in Courage. (1933) pp. 611–28
  • Papke, David Ray. The Pullman Case: The Clash of Labor and Capital in Industrial America. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1999.
  • Rondinone, Troy. "Guarding the Switch: Cultivating Nationalism During the Pullman Strike," Journal of the Gilded Age & Progressive Era 2009 8(1): 83–109 27p.
  • Salvatore, Nick. Eugene V. Debs: Citizen and Socialist. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1984.
  • Schneirov, Richard, et al. (eds.) The Pullman Strike and the Crisis of the 1890s: Essays on Labor and Politics. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1999.
  • Smith, Carl. Urban Disorder and the Shape of Belief: The Great Chicago Fire, the Haymarket Bomb, and the Model Town of Pullman. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
  • Winston, A.P. "The Significance of the Pullman Strike," Journal of Political Economy, vol. 9, no. 4 (Sept. 1901), pp. 540–561. In JSTOR
  • Wish, Harvey. "The Pullman Strike: A Study in Industrial Warfare," Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society (1939) 32#3 pp. 288–312 in JSTOR

外部連結编辑