- Pan-Arab Colors, crwflags.com
- Mahdi Abdul-Hadi. The Great Arab Revolt. passia.org. （原始内容存档于2014-05-05） （阿拉伯语）.
- The contrast of white vs. black as the Fatimid/Umayyad vs. Abbasid dynastic colour over time developed in white as the colour of Shia Islam and black as the colour of Sunni Islam: "The proselytes of the ʿAbbasid revolution took full advantage of the eschatological expectations raised by black banners in their campaign to undermine the Umayyad dynasty from within. Even after the ʿAbbasids had triumphed over the Umayyads in 750, they continued to deploy black as their dynastic colour; not only the banners but the headdresses and garments of the ʿAbbasid caliphs were black [...] The ubiquitous black created a striking contrast with the banners and dynastic color of the Umayyads, which had been white [...] The Ismaili Shiʿite counter-caliphate founded by the Fatimids took white as its dynastic color, creating a visual contrast to the ʿAbbasid enemy [...] white became the Shiʿite color, in deliberate opposition to the black of the ʿAbbasid 'establishment'." Jane Hathaway, A Tale of Two Factions: Myth, Memory, and Identity in Ottoman Egypt and Yemen, 2012, p. 97f.
- The Abbasid Revolution against the Umayyad Caliphate adopted black for its rāyaʾ for which their partisans were called the musawwids. Tabari, Jane McAuliffe , 编, Abbāsid Authority Affirmed 28, SUNY: 124, 1995
- "Green is frequently found in Arab flags because this colour was taken by the Fatimite dynasty, which ruled most of north Africa." American Educator, New York, 1973, 7th vol., p. 131,