# 波茲曼常數

（重定向自热电压

1.380649×10−23[2] J|K−1
8.617333262145×10−5 eVK−1
1.380649×10−16 erg|K−1

${\displaystyle k=1.38064852(79)\times 10^{-23}}$J/K

${\displaystyle k={\frac {R}{N_{\text{A}}}}\,}$

## 溫度與能量關係

${\displaystyle {\frac {kT}{2}}=2.07\times 10^{-21}}$ J或 0.013 eV。

${\displaystyle PV=NkT}$

## 熵的定義

${\displaystyle S=k\,\ln \Omega }$

## 熱電壓

${\displaystyle V_{T}={kT \over q},}$  其中${\displaystyle q}$  為电子的电量（大小为1.602×10−19, 單位是庫侖）。

## 参考文献

1. ^ Barry N. Taylor of the Data Center in close collaboration with Peter J. Mohr of the Physical Measurement Laboratory's Atomic Physics Division, Termed the "2014 CODATA recommended values", they are generally recognized worldwide for use in all fields of science and technology. The values became available on 25 June 2015 and replaced the 2010 CODATA set. They are based on all of the data available through 31 December 2014. Available: https://physics.nist.gov
2. ^ The International System of Units (SI). Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. 2019: 129.
3. ^ 溫度的單位：克耳文(K). 國家度量衡標準實驗室. [2015-10-16].
4. ^ Ghosh, Pallab. Kilogram gets a new definition. BBC News. 2018-11-16 [2018-11-16] （英国英语）.
5. ^ Veritasium, The kg is dead, long live the kg, 2018-11-15 [2018-11-16]