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特拉卡埃莱尔(纳瓦特尔语:Tlācaēllel,1397-1487),阿兹特克王族,建筑师,自15世纪20年代开始终身担任阿兹特克帝国的首席顾问[2][3]。他是特拉托阿尼维齐利维特尔和卡卡玛西瓦特尔女王的儿子,伊兹科瓦特尔之侄。

特拉卡埃莱尔
Tlacochcalcatl.jpg
特拉卡埃莱尔曾是阿兹特克将军(特拉科奇卡尔卡特尔,Tlacochcalcatl)
出生 1397年[1]
特诺奇蒂特兰
逝世 1487年
居住地 特诺奇蒂特兰
头衔 特诺奇蒂特兰将军
配偶 马基斯特辛
儿女 卡卡马特辛
特利尔波敦卡特辛
希赫波波卡特辛
父母 维齐利维特尔
卡卡玛西瓦特尔女王

在伊兹科瓦特尔统治年间,他被任命为将军(特拉科奇卡尔卡特尔),在15世纪20年代和特帕内克人作战期间被擢升为国王的首席顾问,称为西瓦科瓦特尔。他终身担任这一职务,辅佐过四代君王。

特拉卡埃莱尔在思想上强调阿兹特克人是被众神选中的子民,定战神维齐洛波奇特利为守护神[4]。他极其强调军事[5],为赋予军事活动以宗教意义,他提出荣冠战争,并扩大人祭规模。

他强制推行节约令,禁止平民穿戴奢侈服饰,以巩固贵族地位。他亦实施焚书,销毁阿兹特克人迁居前的当地史料[6][7]

阿兹特克国家在特拉卡埃莱尔主政期间达到国力巅峰。他于1487年逝世。特拉卡埃莱尔逝世后,阿兹特克帝国继续向北方的奇奇梅克和南方的玛雅土地进军[8]

参考资料编辑

  1. ^ Sometimes Tlacaélel's birth year is listed as 1398; see, e.g.: Mann, Charles C. (2005), 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus, New York: Knopf, p. 118, ISBN 1-4000-4006-X.
  2. ^ Durán, Diego, History of the Indies of New Spain, Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994, pp. 74–101, ISBN 0-8061-2649-3.
  3. ^ Malmstrom, Vincent H. (1997), Cycles of the Sun, Mysteries of the Moon: The Calendar in Mesoamerican Civilization, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, p. 238, ISBN 0-292-75196-6.
  4. ^ Brotherston, Gordon (1974), "Huitzilopochtli and What Was Made of Him", p. 159 in Hammond, Norman (ed.) (1974), Mesoamerican Archaeology - New Approaches: Proceedings of a Symposium on Mesoamerican Archaeology held by the University of Cambridge Centre of Latin American Studies, August 1972, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, pp. 155–66, ISBN 0-292-75008-0.
  5. ^ Burke, John Francis (2002), Mestizo Democracy: The Politics of Crossing Borders, College Station: Texas A & M University Press, p. 137, ISBN 1-58544-208-9.
  6. ^ Ostler, Nicholas (2005), Empires of the Word: A Language History of the World, New York: HarperCollins, p. 354 ISBN 0-06-621086-0.
  7. ^ Madrid Codex, VIII, 192v, as quoted in León-Portilla, p. 155. León-Portilla, Miguel. Aztec Thought and Culture: A Study of the Ancient Náhuatl Mind. Civilization of the American Indian series, no. 67. Jack Emory Davis (trans.). Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. 1963. OCLC 181727.  Note that León-Portilla finds Tlacaelel to be the instigator of this burning, despite lack of specific historical evidence.
  8. ^ Schroeder, Susan. Talcaelel Remembered: Mastermind of the Aztec Empire. University of Oklahoma Press. 2016.