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約斐爾希伯來語יופיאל‬,英語Jophiel),意為「神之美」,也譯為約菲爾祖菲爾,是猶太教基督教中的一位天使。相傳身份和座天使沙法爾Zaphkiel,意為「神的守護者」)經常混淆。約斐爾於聖公宗圖像藝術中通常以手持烈燄聖劍英语Flaming sword (mythology)天使長形像出現。[1][2][3]

天使長聖約斐爾
Saint Jophiel the Archangel
Sanctus Jophiel.jpg
彩繪玻璃窗上的約斐爾像,位於英國布萊頓的聖公會聖米迦勒堂
天使/天使長
敬礼於 猶太教聖公宗
象徵英语Saint symbolism 烈燄聖劍英语Flaming sword (mythology)
主保 藝術、藝術家

目录

宗教與魔法傳說编辑

 
根據羅勃·閔斯·勞倫斯英语Robert Means Lawrence[4]亞瑟·德·布勒(Arthur de Bles)和 R. L. 吉爾斯(R. L. Giles)的說法,約斐爾就是奉命將亞當夏娃逐出天堂天使[5]

根據偽經摩西啟示錄英语Apocalypse of Moses》,約斐爾還有一個名字叫做迪納Dina),約斐爾/迪納被描述為是第七重天的天使,托辣 (其自身即智慧) 的卡巴拉守護者,並是在造物之初教導靈魂學習70種語言的天使。[6]光輝之書》將祂列為統轄53支軍團的首席大天使,並負責監管在安息日托辣的誦讀。[7]據說約斐爾還是天使梅塔特隆的同伴。[5] 根據在《以西結書》中,約斐爾是有四張臉、四個手腕以及四片翼的天使長。

C. E. 克萊孟(C. E. Clement)在他的《藝術中的天使》(Angels in Art)一書中說約斐爾是雅弗的導師,[5]阿格里帕·馮·內特斯海姆[8]湯瑪斯·路德英语Thomas Rudd同樣認為約斐爾是的導師。[9]

約斐爾是卡巴拉天使長,這包括中古早期神學家偽丟尼修英语Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite所列的天使名單在內的多份名單都持同樣觀點。[10]自然魔法萬年曆》列出約斐爾是卡巴拉生命樹的第二個質點 Chokhmah(智慧)的天使,[11]而《所羅門之鑰》的變體版《所羅門眞實之鑰》(The Veritable Clavicles of Solomon),[12]以及《摩西六書與七書英语Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses》也持相同觀點,[13]後兩本著作都是衍生自《自然魔法萬年曆》。[14]阿格里帕將約斐爾歸於土星的天使,但帕拉塞爾蘇斯卻認為祂是屬於木星的天使,[5]湯瑪斯·路德英语Thomas Rudd則將約斐爾的黃道帶[15]卡巴拉生命樹的第三個質點 Binah (理解/領悟) 連繫在一起。[16]阿塔納斯·珂雪將約斐爾以拉丁語命名為「angelus pulchritudinis」,意即「美之天使」。[17]根據羅伯·安貝朗英语Robert Ambelain的看法,約斐爾是智天使的掌管者,特別是於七十二字母神名中所提到的天使。[18]

文學编辑

《愛與光之天使》(Angels of Love and Light)描述約斐爾為「天國中的天使長藝術家啟發英语Divine illumination守護聖者,祂教導外在意識和個人內在之光的力量」。祂也被描述為是「智慧、啟發與恆久不變的黃色光束」,並將祂的天使伴侶(Archeia)一同列出,如同克莉絲汀(Christine)所說:

約翰·密爾頓史詩失樂園》中,提到約斐爾是「擁有智天使中最迅捷的羽翼」(《失樂園》第四章,535節)。

祖菲爾(Zophiel)是瑪麗亞·高文·布魯克斯英语Maria Gowen Brooks所寫的一首詩裡的主題對象。

擴展閱讀编辑

  • Fischer, Lynn (1996), Angels of Love and Light [with original paintings of the Seven Beloved Archangels and Their Archeiai by Marius Michael-George], Transformational Media Publications, South Yarmouth, MA
  • "Jophiel", Pearls of Wisdom, Volume 7 Number 43, 1994, The Summit Lighthouse, Copyright © 1997 Church Universal and Triumphant
  • "Seven Beloved Archangels Speak", 1954, The Bridge to Freedom

畫廊编辑

參考文獻编辑

  1. ^ K, Simon. Kempe: Jophiel. flickr.com. 2009-09-17 [2019-01-31] (英语). 
  2. ^ Glass Angel. Coventry - Holy Trinity Church. flickr.com. 2011 [2019-01-31] (英语). 
  3. ^ Christ Triumphant (High Altar). stjohnsmemphis.org. [2019-01-31] (英语). 
  4. ^ Lawrence, Robert M. (1898), The Magic of the Horse-Shoe, With Other Folk-Lore Notes, Chapter III: The Number Seven at sacred-texts.com
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Davidson, Gustav (1967), A Dictionary of Angels, Including The Fallen Angels, Entry: Iofiel, Free Press, p. 150, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 66-19757, ISBN 9780029070505
  6. ^ Gaster, Moses英语Gaster, Moses (1893), "Hebrew Visions of Hell and Paradise," in the Journal of The Royal Asiatic Society, p. 579, at www.sacred-texts.com
  7. ^ Davidson, Gustav (1967), A Dictionary of Angels, Including The Fallen Angels, Entry: Iofiel, Free Press, p. 320, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 66-19757, ISBN 9780029070505
  8. ^ Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa, Three Books of Occult Philosophy, Book III, Part 1, ed. Joseph Peterson, hosted at Twilit Grotto Esoteric Archives.
  9. ^ A Treatise on Angel Magic, by Thomas Rudd, ed. Adam McLean, p.25 & 204, (two editions):
    • Phanes Press, 1990
    • Red Wheel/Weiser, 2006
  10. ^ Davidson, Gustav (1967), A Dictionary of Angels, Including The Fallen Angels, Appendix, Free Press, p. 338, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 66-19757, ISBN 9780029070505
  11. ^ The Magical Calender, by Johann Baptist Grossschedel英语Johann Baptist Grossschedel (two editions):
  12. ^ The Veritable Clavicles of Solomon, anonymous, ed. Joseph Peterson, hosted at Twilit Grotto Esoteric Archives
  13. ^ The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses (part 2), anonymous, ed. Joseph Peterson, hosted at Twilit Grotto Esoteric Archives
  14. ^ The Magical Calender, Peterson edition introduction
  15. ^ Rudd, McLean, pp.100 (2006 ed), p.101 (1990 ed)
  16. ^ Rudd, McLean, p.204 (1990, 2006)
  17. ^ "Cabala Hebraeorum" in Oedipus Aegyptiacus英语Oedipus Aegyptiacus, by Athanasius Kircher, ed. Joseph Peterson, hosted at Twilit Grotto Esoteric Archives
  18. ^ The Complete Magician's Tables, by Stephen Skinner, Golden Hoard Press, 2006, p.41
  19. ^ Furnival, William James. Leadless Decorative Tiles, Faience, and Mosaic, Comprising Notes and Excerpts on the History, Materials, Manufacture & Use of Ornamental Flooring Tiles, Ceramic Mosaic, and Decorative Tiles and Faience. Moscow: Ripol Classic Publishing House. : 525 [1904]. ISBN 9781176325630 (英语). While on either hand are the archangels: Michael is a glorious figure in armour; Uriel holds the sun; Gabriel bears the lily of the Annunciation; Chemuel, the angel of the Sangreal, stands next him with the sacred cup; and Zophiel, to his left, holds the moon.