組蛋白密碼

組蛋白密碼(Histone code)是一個描述真核生物藉修飾包裹DNA組蛋白(主要是其N端尾)以調控基因表現的理論,和DNA甲基化共同組成表觀遺傳密碼英语epigenetic code[2] 。組蛋白上的修飾包括乙醯化甲基化磷酸化泛素化二磷酸腺苷核糖基化GlcNAc糖基化英语GlcNAc[3]瓜胺酸化英语citrullination脯胺酸異構化英语Proline isomerization in epigenetics[4]SUMO修飾英语SUMO protein[5],這些修飾的組合可影響染色體結構以及與其他蛋白的結合力,提升或降低基因的轉錄。人類細胞中組蛋白修飾的種類複雜,其中某幾種修飾可能傾向出現在同一個組蛋白上[6]。近年由於質譜法技術的發展而有更多修飾種類與位點被發現[7],也有許多研究探討加上或移除組蛋白修飾的多種酵素,以及可辨認這些修飾而與之結合的其他蛋白[8]

已知的組蛋白修飾位點與種類[1]

種類编辑

組蛋白修飾對基因轉錄的影響
修飾種類 組蛋白位點
H3K4 H3K9 H3K14 H3K27 H3K79 H3K36 H4K20 H2BK5 H2BK20
單甲基化 促進[9] 促進[10] 促進[10] 促進[10][11] 促進[10] 促進[10]
雙甲基化 抑制[12] 抑制[12] 促進[11]
三甲基化 促進[13] 抑制[10] 抑制[10] 促進[11]
抑制[10]
促進 抑制[12]
乙醯化 促進[14] 促進[13] 促進[13] 促進[15] 促進

參考文獻编辑

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