結構語法(通常被稱爲 CxG)是認知語言學領域中的一簇,其提出了結構,或者說語言行爲模式與意義的關係,是人類語言中基礎的建構單位。結構包涵單詞 (aardvark, avocado),語素 (anti-, -ing),固定表達與成語 (by and large, jog X's memory)和抽象語法規則,例如英語被動語態 (The cat was hit by a car)或雙及物動詞 (Mary gave Alex the ball)。任何的語言行爲模式都可以被認爲是一個結構,只要其形式的某些方面或其意義無法被從其組成部分或其他被認爲存在的語法結構中預測。在結構語法中,每個語句都被理解爲是多個不同結構的聯合,其一起定義了其精確含義與形式。[1]

結構語法的支持者認爲,語言與文化並不是人爲設計的,而是“湧現”,或者在類似物種自然選擇[2][3][4][5]或者像昆蟲通過築巢形成自然結構[6]的過程中自動建構的。結構可以對應到演化器或模因學中的模因與其它的文化演化器理論。[7][8][5][9]然而它也存在不被承認爲文化演進的原創模型、基礎部分與模因學相同的爭議。[10]建構語法與意圖描述人類理性創意行爲是如何自主發生與無意識進行的幾種認知語言學的概念相關。[11][6]

引用 编辑

  1. ^ Goldberg, Adele. Constructions at Work: The Nature of Generalization in Language. New York: Oxford University Press. 2006: 5–10. ISBN 0-19-9-268525. 
  2. ^ Croft, William. The relevance of an evolutionary model to historical linguistics. Nedergaard Thomsen, Ole (编). Competing Models of Linguistic Change: Evolution and Beyond. Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 279. John Benjamins. 2006: 91–132. ISBN 978-90-272-4794-0. doi:10.1075/cilt.279.08cro. 
  3. ^ Beckner, Clay; Blythe, Richard; Bybee, Joan; Christiansen, Morten H.; Croft, William; Ellis, Nick C.; Holland, John; Ke, Jinyun; Larsen-Freeman, Diane; Schoenemann, Tom. Language is a Complex Adaptive System: Position Paper (PDF). Language Learning. 2009, 59 (1): 1–26 [2020-03-04]. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9922.2009.00533.x. 
  4. ^ Cornish, Hannah; Tamariz, Monica; Kirby, Simon. Complex Adaptive Systems and the Origins of Adaptive Structure: What Experiments Can Tell Us (PDF). Language Learning. 2009, 59 (1): 187–205 [2020-06-30]. S2CID 56199987. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9922.2009.00540.x. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 MacWhinney, Brian. Introduction – language emergence. MacWhinney, Brian; O'Grady, William (编). Handbook of Language Emergence. Wiley. 2015: 1–31. ISBN 9781118346136. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Dahl, Östen. The Growth and Maintenance of Linguistic Complexity. John Benjamins. 2004. ISBN 9781588115546. 
  7. ^ Kirby, Simon. Transitions: the evolution of linguistic replicators. Binder; Smith (编). The Language Phenomenon (PDF). The Frontiers Collection. Springer. 2013: 121–138 [2020-03-04]. ISBN 978-3-642-36085-5. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-36086-2_6. 
  8. ^ Zehentner, Eva. Competition in Language Change: the Rise of the English Dative Alternation. De Gruyter Mouton. 2019. ISBN 978-3-11-063385-6. 
  9. ^ Peschek, Ilka. Die Konstruktion als kulturelle Einheit. Zeitschrift für Germanistische Linguistik. 2010, 38 (3): 451–457. S2CID 143951283. doi:10.1515/ZGL.2010.031. 
  10. ^ Blackmore, Susan. Memes shape brains shape memes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 2008, 31 (5): 513 [2020-12-22]. doi:10.1017/S0140525X08005037. 
  11. ^ Lakoff, George; Johnson, Mark. Philosophy in the Flesh : the Embodied Mind and its Challenge to Western Thought. Basic Books. 1999. ISBN 0465056733. 

擴展閱讀 编辑

  • Bergen, Benjamin and Nancy Chang. Embodied Construction Grammar in Simulation-Based Language Understanding. In press. J.-O. Östman and M. Fried (eds.). Construction Grammar(s): Cognitive and Cross-Language Dimensions. Johns Benjamins.
  • Croft, William A. (2001). Radical Construction Grammar: Syntactic Theory in Typological Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Croft, William A. and D. Alan Cruse (2004). Cognitive Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Feldman, Jerome A. (2006). From Molecule to Metaphor: A Neural Theory of Language . Cambridge : MIT Press.
  • Fillmore, Charles, Paul Kay and Catherine O'Connor (1988). Regularity and Idiomaticity in Grammatical Constructions: The Case of let alone. Language 64: 501–38.
  • Goldberg, Adele. (1995) Constructions: A Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Goldberg, Adele (2006). Constructions at Work: The Nature of Generalization in Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Hilpert, Martin (2014). Construction Grammar and its Application to English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Lakoff, George (1987). Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind. Chicago: CSLI.
  • Langacker, Ronald (1987, 1991). Foundations of Cognitive Grammar. 2 vols. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Michaelis, Laura A. and Knud Lambrecht (1996). Toward a Construction-Based Model of Language Function: The Case of Nominal Extraposition. Language 72: 215–247.
  • Michaelis, Laura A. and Josef Ruppenhofer (2001). Beyond Alternations: A Construction-Based Account of the Applicative Construction in German. Stanford: CSLI Publications.
  • Michaelis, Laura A. (2004). Type Shifting in Construction Grammar: An Integrated Approach to Aspectual Coercion. Cognitive Linguistics 15: 1–67.
  • De Beule Joachim and Steels Luc (2005). Hierarchy in Fluid Construction Grammar. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence (LNCS/LNAI) 3698 (2005) pages 1–15). Berlin: Springer.
  • Steels, Luc and De Beule, Joachim (2006). Unify and merge in fluid construction grammars. In: Vogt, P., Sugita, Y., Tuci, E. and Nehaniv, C., editors, Symbol Grounding and Beyond: Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on the Emergence and Evolution of Linguistic Communication, EELC 2006, Rome, Italy, September 30–October 1, 2006, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS/LNAI) Vol. 4211, Berlin. Springer-Verlag. pp. 197–223.

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