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美国公务员制度委员会美国联邦政府设立的一个政府机构,起初的目的是为了考核联邦政府内部所雇用员工的绩效而设立的,1978年的公务员制度改革法案英语Civil Service Reform Act of 1978使它於1979年被解散,由美国人事管理办公室英语United States Office of Personnel Management考绩制度保护委员会英语United States Merit Systems Protection Board取代。

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历史沿革编辑

1871年,美国总统尤利西斯·辛普森·格兰特美国国会通过了公务员制度改革法案,第一次成立美国公务员委员会。格兰特总统和美国国会持续两年撥款給委员会,直到1874年。然而严重依赖獵官制的美国国会(参议院更甚)没有繼續撥款給公务员委员会。[1]格兰特总统的继任者——拉瑟福德·伯查德·海斯请求更新的资金,但没有被授予。

海斯的继任者詹姆斯·艾布拉姆·加菲尔德总统提倡改革公务员制度,但是遭獵官不成的Charles J. Guiteau暗殺。

加菲爾德總統的繼任者切斯特·艾倫·阿瑟總統推動了公務員制度的改革,並且遊說國會在1883年通過彭德爾頓法案。彭德爾頓法案的通過部分是由於公眾對加菲尔德總統遭暗殺的反感。德爾頓法案重新為公務員委員會提供資金,並設立了一個三人委員會負責委員會運作,由亞瑟總統任命委員。彭德爾頓法案要求某些申請人參加公務員考試,才能獲得某些工作;它也阻止了當選官員和政治任命者開除公務員,使公務員免受獵官和黨派行為的影響。阿瑟總統和隨後的總統繼續擴大公務員委員會的權力,管理更多聯邦部門的職務。公務員委員會除了減少獵官外,還減輕了美國總統任命聯邦職務的繁重責任。

历届委员会主席编辑

 
George W. Curtis英语George William Curtis
1871年,第一位美国公务员委员会主席由美国总统尤利西斯·辛普森·格兰特任命。
名称 起始 结束
George W. Curtis英语George William Curtis[2] January 1, 1872 January 1, 1874
Dorman B. Eaton英语Dorman B. Eaton Mar 9, 1883 [3] Nov 1, 1885 (resigned) [4]
Alfred P. Edgerton英语Alfred P. Edgerton Nov 9, 1885 [5] Feb 9, 1889 (removed) [5]
Charles Lyman英语Charles Lyman May 13, 1889 [7] Dec 15, 1893 (resigned) [8]
John R. Procter英语John R. Procter Dec 15, 1893 [8] Dec 12, 1903 (died) [9]
John C. Black英语John C. Black Jan 17, 1904 [10] Jun 10, 1913 (resigned) [11]
John A. McIlhenny英语John A. McIlhenny Jun 12, 1913 [12] Feb 28, 1919 (resigned) [13]
Martin A. Morrison英语Martin A. Morrison Mar 13, 1919 [13] Jul 14, 1921 (resigned) [14]
John H. Bartlett英语John H. Bartlett Jul 15, 1921 [14] Mar 12, 1922 (resigned) [14]
William C. Deming英语William C. Deming Mar 1, 1923 [15] Feb 6, 1930 (resigned) [16]
Thomas E. Campbell英语Thomas E. Campbell Jul 11, 1930 [17] c. 1933 (resigned)
Harry B. Mitchell英语Harry B. Mitchell May 19, 1933 [18] Feb 26, 1951 (resigned) [19]
Robert Ramspeck英语Robert Ramspeck Mar 16, 1951 [20] Dec 31, 1952 (resigned) [21]
Philip Young英语Philip Young (ambassador) Mar 23, 1953 [22] Feb 11, 1957 (resigned) [23]
Harris Ellsworth英语Harris Ellsworth Apr 18, 1957 [24] Feb 28, 1959 (resigned) [24]
Roger W. Jones英语Roger W. Jones Mar 10, 1959 [25] Jan 4, 1961 (resigned) [26]
John W. Macy英语John Macy Mar 6, 1961 [27] Jan 18, 1969 (resigned) [28]
Robert E. Hampton英语Robert E. Hampton Jan 18, 1969 [28] c. 1977 [29]
Alan K. Campbell英语Alan K. Campbell January 2, 1979 January 20, 1981


關連項目编辑

参考来源编辑

  1. ^ Brands (2012), pp. 543-544
  2. ^ Smith (2001), p. 589
  3. ^ Foulke, W. D. Fighting the spoilsmen: reminiscences of the civil service reform movement (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. 1919), p.8
  4. ^ Cleveland, Grover. Accepting Letter of Resignation of Dorman B. Eaton in The Writings and Speeches of Grover Cleveland, ed. George F. Parker (New York: Cassell Publishing Company, 1892), p.46
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Fourth Report of the United States Civil Service Commission (Washington: Government Printing Office. 1888) pp. 120-121
  6. ^ R.P. van Riper, 1958. History of the United States Civil Service, Row, Peterson & Co., 1958
  7. ^ Trying The Charleston, "New York Times", May 14, 1889
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Procter Succeeds Lyman, "The Daily Argus News" (Crawfordsville, Indiana), Dec 15 1893
  9. ^ ''Twentieth Annual Report of the United States Civil Service Commission (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1904) p. 7.
  10. ^ Gen. Black Takes The Oath, "New York Times", Jan 17, 1904
  11. ^ Thirty-First Annual Report of the United States Civil Service Commission (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1915) p. 116.
  12. ^ McIlhenny Heads Civil Service, "New York Times", Jun 13, 1913
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Thirty-Sixth Annual Report of the United States Civil Service Commission(Washington: Government Printing Office, 1919) p. xxvii
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 14.2 Thirty-Ninth Annual Report of the United States Civil Service Commission(Washington: Government Printing Office, 1922) p. 121
  15. ^ The U.S. Civil Service Commission, "Congressional Digest英语Congressional Digest", Vol II. No. 7 (April 1923), p. 198
  16. ^ Hoover, Herbert. Letter Accepting the Resignation of William C. Deming as President of the Civil Service Commission in "Public Papers Of The Presidents Of The United States" (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1976)
  17. ^ Civil Service Head Takes Oath, "The Hartford Courant" (Hartford, Connecticut), Jul 11, 1930
  18. ^ Politics And Politicians, "Gazette And Bulletin" (Williamsport, Pennsylvania), May 20, 1933
  19. ^ Ramspeck Is Named Civil Service Head, "The Day" (New London, Connecticut), Feb 27, 1951
  20. ^ Ramspeck Takes Oath For Commission Post, "The Spokesman-Review" (Spokane, Washington), Mar 17, 1951
  21. ^ Civil Service Chief Quits, Wins Praise, "Toledo Blade" (Toledo, Ohio), Jan 1, 1953
  22. ^ Eisenhower Pledges To Rid Civil Service Of All Incompetents, "Florence Times" (Florence, Alabama), Mar 23, 1953
  23. ^ Two Quit CSC, "Reading Eagle" (Reading, Pennsylvania), Feb 11, 1957
  24. ^ 24.0 24.1 Ellsworth, Matthew Harris. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Senate Historical office and House Legislative Resource Center. 
  25. ^ Roger Jones Becomes Head of Civil Service, "The Hartford Courant" (Hartford, Connecticut), Mar 10, 1959
  26. ^ Kennedy, Farm Bosses Tackle Issue, "The Miami News" (Miami, Florida), Jan 5, 1961
  27. ^ Macy Serves First Month In Federal Post for Free, "The Hartford Courant" (Hartford, Connecticut), Mar 5, 1961
  28. ^ 28.0 28.1 Nixon Names Three to Policy Positions, "The Los Angeles Times" (Los Angeles, California), Jan 18, 1969
  29. ^ Robert E. Hampton, Member and Chairman, U.S. Civil Service Commission; Member and Chairman, Federal Labor Relations Council: Papers 1960-77. Gerald R. Ford Library-Guides. June 1989 [2011-02-09]. (原始内容存档于2011-07-01).