自我提升

自我提升(英語:Self-enhancement)或称自我膨胀自我拉抬是人的一种动机,有些人通过它使自己自我感觉良好和保持自尊[1],在受到威胁、遭遇失败和自尊心被打击时相对多见[2][3][4]。自我提升时,人们倾向于接受正面的自我概念[5]。自我提升使得人们改变控制自身行为的自律过程。它是四种自我评估动机之一,其他三种为自我评定(寻求准确自我概念的动机)、自我验证(寻求与自我感觉一致的自我概念的动机)和自我改善(改良自我概念的行为)。

人们可以使用很多策略提升自己的个人价值感知,比如忽视自己不擅长的方面、通过比较并批评他人让自己感觉更好。通过这些策略,人们趋向认为自己比别人优点更多,缺点更少[6]。自我提升的人群中既有高自尊心者也有低自尊心者,但各自使用的策略不同。高自尊心者会通过偏差地处理信息,直接提升自我概念;低自尊者通过更间接的策略,如避免暴露缺点的情况出现[7]

自我提升是否对个体有利的问题是有争议的。

结果编辑

自我提升策略的影响显示在人们将自己视为比别人的优点更多,前途更光明[6]

自我提升三元素编辑

人们通常对自己有着不切实际的个人价值感知,这些自我满足的看法可以被归为三类,称之为正面错觉三元素[8],他们是:超过平均效应[9]控制错觉[10]不切实际的乐观[11]。很多情境下,这三种错觉都会出现,而且很难校正。讽刺的是,当被告知这些错觉的存在时,人们普遍认为自己比别人出现得更少[12]

超过平均效应编辑

优于常人效应是超过平均效应的最常见证明。此效应十分顽固,即使条件与其他被评价个体完全相同时,人们仍然会对自己作出更高的评价。[9]人们也会对与自己相关的事物给予更高的优越感,人们认为自己的亲密朋友[13][14]和个人财产[15]高于其他人。然而当成果被认为是需要精湛技巧的,人们通常会谨慎而表现出劣于常人效应。例如,多数人会把自己骑独轮车能力评为低于常人。

多数人超过平均在很多下是不可能的,比如在对称分布情况下,此时 平均数 = 中位数 = 众数 。[16]或者非对称分布的情况下,此时平均数 < 中位数 < 众数 或 众数 < 中位数 < 平均数。然而在非对称分布的情况下,如果把平均数或者众数看作平均值,多数人超过平均则是可能的。

人们在很多方面上的自我提升的原因是超过平均效应。人们通常倾向于在有正面、合意的结果的事物中显示出高于平均,在负面、不合意的事物中低于平均。

超过平均效应现象包括:

  • 多数大学生认为自己的礼仪、运动技能和领导力是前50%卓越的。[17][18][19]
  • 语法和逻辑领域的12%优秀者也会认为自己的水平是前62%。[20]
  • 94%的大学教授认为自己的教学能力高于平均水平。[21]
  • 英国和美国的大学生认为自己的驾驶能力高于平均水平驾驶员。[22]即使是因造成车祸住院的驾驶员,也认为自己不比普通驾驶员差。[23]
  • 即使在被告知优于常人效应后,人们也认为自己受此偏差之影响少于他人。[24]

控制错觉编辑

人们会高估自己控制结果和偶然的能力[25] ,实际无关时认为自己的行为是有影响的[26]。人们也相信他们可以影响本身随机的系统,如彩票,尤其是对于与技巧相关的任务。尽管偶然性一定程度上存在于行为和结果中,但它被人们高估了[26]

不切实际的乐观编辑

人们通常相信自己将经历的好事比同类人多,坏事比同龄人少。[11][27][28]人们对于像恋人、好朋友一样的同伴也会有不切实际的乐观,但是程度小些。[29]

不切实际的乐观明显出现在人们多种情境下的行为和看法中。人们会高估自己预测未来的能力[30]以及低估自己完成任务的所需时间[31]。人们高估自己社会预测的准确度[32],并将个人正面结果解读为价值更高,负面结果解读为价值更低[33]。令人担心的是,吸烟者会低估自己相对于不吸烟的癌症风险,甚至会与同类吸烟者比较[34]

对个体的利弊编辑

自我提升是否有利于个体的适应度是存在争议的。[35][36]多种动机可以影响自我提升的出现,因此既有好处,又有坏处。[37]对自己表现评估出错的人(同时包括自我提升者和自我低估者)易于获得较低的学习成绩,其他表现也更差。各种文化中,似乎都会出现此种现象。[38]

  • 如果将“自我提升”理解为“对自己的评价比对别人的评价高”,那么结果经常是好的。[39][40]
  • 如果将“自我提升”理解为“自己对自己 比别人对自己的评价高”,那么结果经常是不好的。[41][42]

两种定义中使用哪种是有争议的。有的研究者人为前一种不算自我提升。[43]

一些研究显示,自我提升与心理水平良好有强烈关系[44],另一些研究恰恰相反,说与心理水平糟糕有关[41]。 自我提升也有社会代价。对九一一恐怖袭击幸存者的治疗中发现,自我提升者的朋友和家人把他们的社会适应度和诚实评为降低。[45]

参考资料编辑

参考编辑

  1. ^ Sedikides, C.; Strube, M. J., The Multiply Motivated Self, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1995, 21 (12): 1330–1335, ISSN 0146-1672, doi:10.1177/01461672952112010, The self-enhancement motive refers to people's desire to enhance the positivity or decrease the negativity of the self-concept. 
  2. ^ Beauregard, Keith S.; Dunning, David, Turning up the contrast: Self-enhancement motives prompt egocentric contrast effects in social judgments, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, 74 (3): 606–621, ISSN 0022-3514, PMID 9523408, doi:10.1037/0022-3514.74.3.606. 
  3. ^ Krueger, J., Enhancement Bias in Descriptions of Self and Others, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1998, 24 (5): 505–516, ISSN 0146-1672, doi:10.1177/0146167298245006. 
  4. ^ Wills, Thomas A., Downward comparison principles in social psychology, Psychological Bulletin, 1981, 90 (2): 245–271, ISSN 0033-2909, doi:10.1037/0033-2909.90.2.245. 
  5. ^ Sedikides, Constantine; Gregg, Aiden P., Self-Enhancement: Food for Thought, Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2008, 3 (2): 102–116, ISSN 1745-6916, doi:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2008.00068.x. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Kunda 1999,第485–486頁
  7. ^ Kunda 1999,第465–466頁
  8. ^ Taylor, S. E., & Brown J. D.; Brown, JD, Illusions and well-being: A social psychological perspective on mental health, Psychological Bulletin, 1988, 103 (2): 193–210, PMID 3283814, doi:10.1037/0033-2909.103.2.193 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 Alicke, M. D., Vredenburg, D. S., Hiatt, M., & Govorun, O.; Vredenburg, Debbie S.; Hiatt, Matthew; Govorun, Olesya, The "better than myself effect", Motivation and Emotion, 2001, 25: 7–22, doi:10.1023/A:1010655705069 
  10. ^ Fenton-O'Creevy, M., Nicholson, N., Soane, E., & Willman, P.; Nicholson, Nigel; Soane, Emma; Willman, Paul, Trading on illusion: Unrealistic perceptions of control and trading performance, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 2003, 76: 53–68, doi:10.1348/096317903321208880 
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 Helweg-Larsen, M., & Shepperd, J. A., Do moderators of the optimistic bias affect personal or target risk estimates? A review of the literature, Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2001, 51: 74–95 
  12. ^ Pronin, E., Gilovich, T., & Ross, L.; Gilovich, T; Ross, L, Objectivity in the eye of the beholder: Divergent perceptions of bias in self versus others, Psychological Review, 2004, 111 (3): 781–799, PMID 15250784, doi:10.1037/0033-295X.111.3.781 
  13. ^ Murray, S. L., The quest for conviction: Motivated cognition in romantic relationships, Psychological Inquiry, 1999, 10: 23–34, doi:10.1207/s15327965pli1001_3 
  14. ^ Rusbult, C. E., van Lange, P. A. M., Wildschut, T., Yovetich, N. A., & Verette, J.; Van Lange, PA; Wildschut, T; Yovetich, NA; Verette, J, Perceived superiority in close relationships: Why it exists and persists, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 79 (4): 521–545, PMID 11045737, doi:10.1037/0022-3514.79.4.521 
  15. ^ Nesselroade, K. P., Beggan, J. K., & Allison, S. T.; Beggan, James K.; Allison, Scott T., Possession enhancement in an interpersonal context: An extension of the mere ownership effect, Psychology and Marketing, 1999, 16: 21–34, doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199901)16:1<21::AID-MAR2>3.0.CO;2-9 
  16. ^ Brown, J., The self. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998 
  17. ^ Alicke, M. D., Global self-evaluation as determined by the desirability and controllability of trait adjectives, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985, 49 (6): 1621–1630, doi:10.1037/0022-3514.49.6.1621 
  18. ^ College, Board (1976-1977), Student descriptive questionnaire, Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. 
  19. ^ Dunning, D., Meyerowitz, J. A., & Holzberg, A. D.; Meyerowitz, Judith A.; Holzberg, Amy D., Ambiguity and self-evaluation: The role of idiosyncratic trait definitions in self-serving assessments of ability, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1989, 57 (6): 1082–1090, doi:10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1082 
  20. ^ Kruger, J., & Dunning, D.; Dunning, D, Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognising one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, 77 (6): 1121–1134, PMID 10626367, doi:10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1121 
  21. ^ Cross, P., Not can but will college teaching be improved?, New Directions for Higher Education, 1977, 17: 1–15 
  22. ^ Svenson, O., Are we less risky and more skillful than our fellow drivers?, Acta Psychologica, 1981, 47 (2): 143–151, doi:10.1016/0001-6918(81)90005-6 
  23. ^ Preston, C. E., & Harris, S.; Harris, S, Psychology of drivers in traffic accidents, Journal of Applied Psychology, 1965, 49 (4): 284–288, PMID 5826671, doi:10.1037/h0022453 
  24. ^ Pronin, E., Yin, D. Y., & Ross, L., The bias blind spot: Perceptions of bias in self versus others, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2002, 3: 369–381 
  25. ^ Langer, E. J., The illusion of control, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1975, 32 (2): 311–328, doi:10.1037/0022-3514.32.2.311 
  26. ^ 26.0 26.1 Jenkins, H. M., & Ward, W. C.; Ward, WC, Judgments of contingency between response and outcome, Psychological Monographs, 1965, 79: 1–17, PMID 14300511, doi:10.1037/h0093874 
  27. ^ Weinstein, N. D., Unrealistic optimism about future events, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, 39 (5): 806–829, doi:10.1037/0022-3514.39.5.806 
  28. ^ Weinstein, N. D., & Klein, W. M.; Klein, WM, Resistance of personal risk perceptions to debiasing manipulation, Health Psychology, 1995, 14 (2): 132–140, PMID 7789348, doi:10.1037/0278-6133.14.2.132 
  29. ^ Regan, P. C., Snyder, M., & Kassin, S. M.; Snyder, M.; Kassin, S. M., Unrealistic optimism: Self-enhancement or person positivity?, Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1995, 21 (10): 1073–1082, doi:10.1177/01461672952110008 
  30. ^ Vallone, R. P., Griffin, D. W., Lin, S., & Ross, L.; Griffin, DW; Lin, S; Ross, L, Overconfident predictions of future actions and outcomes by self and others, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1990, 58 (4): 582–592, PMID 2348360, doi:10.1037/0022-3514.58.4.582 
  31. ^ Buehler, R., Griffin, D., & Ross, M.; Griffin, Dale; Ross, Michael, Exploring the "planning fallacy": Why people underestimate their task completion times, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1994, 67 (3): 366–381, doi:10.1037/0022-3514.67.3.366 
  32. ^ Dunning, D., Griffin, D. W., Milojkovic, J. D., & Ross, L.; Griffin, DW; Milojkovic, JD; Ross, L, The overconfidence effect in social predictions, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1990, 58 (4): 568–581, PMID 2348359, doi:10.1037/0022-3514.58.4.568 
  33. ^ Smits, T., & Hoorens, V.; Hoorens, Vera, How probable is probably? It depends on whom you're talking about, Journal of Behavioural Decision Making, 2005, 18 (2): 83–96, doi:10.1002/bdm.485 
  34. ^ Weinstein, N. D., Marcus, S. E., & Moser, R. P.; Marcus, SE; Moser, RP, Smokers' unrealistic optimism about their risk., Tobacco Control, 2005, 14 (1): 55–59, PMC 1747991 , PMID 15735301, doi:10.1136/tc.2004.008375 
  35. ^ Sedikides, C., Gregg, A. P., & Hart, C. M., The self: Frontiers in social psychology, New York: Psychology Press: 163–184, 2007 
  36. ^ Chang, E. C. (Ed.)., Self-criticism and self-enhancement: Theory, research, and clinical implications., Washington, DC: American Psychological Association., 2007 
  37. ^ Gramzow, R. H., Elliot, A. J., Asher, E., & McGregor, H.; Elliot, Andrew J; Asher, Evan; McGregor, Holly A, Self-evaluation bias and academic performance: Some ways and some reasons why, Journal of Research in Personality, 2003, 37 (2): 41–61, doi:10.1016/S0092-6566(02)00535-4 
  38. ^ Young-Hoon, Kim; Chi-yue, Chiu; Zou, Zhimin, Know Thyself: Misperceptions of Actual Performance Undermine Achievement Motivation, Future Performance, and Subjective Well-Being, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2010, 99 (3): 395–409, PMID 20804261, doi:10.1037/a0020555. 
  39. ^ Swann, W. B. Jr., Chang-Schneider, C., & McClarty, K.; Chang-Schneider, C; Larsen Mcclarty, K, Do our self-views matter? Self-concept and self-esteem in everyday life, American Psychologist, 2007, 62 (2): 84–94, PMID 17324034, doi:10.1037/0003-066X.62.2.84 
  40. ^ Trzesniewski, K., Donnellan, B., Moffitt, T., Robins, R., Poulton, R., & Caspi, A.; Donnellan, MB; Moffitt, TE; Robins, RW; Poulton, R; Caspi, A, Low self-esteem during adolescence predicts poor health, criminal behaviour and limited economic prospects during adulthood, Developmental Psychology, 2006, 42 (2): 381–390, PMID 16569175, doi:10.1037/0012-1649.42.2.381 
  41. ^ 41.0 41.1 Colvin, C. R., Block, J., & Funder, D. C.; Block, Jack; Funder, David C., Overly positive self-evaluations and personality: Negative implications for mental health, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1995, 68 (6): 1152–1162, PMID 7608859, doi:10.1037/0022-3514.68.6.1152 
  42. ^ Paulhus, D. L., Interpersonal and intrapsychic adaptiveness of trait self-enhancement: A mixed blessing?, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, 74 (5): 1197–1208, PMID 9599439, doi:10.1037/0022-3514.74.5.1197 
  43. ^ Paulhus, Delroy L.; Aliye Kurt, Moderators of the adaptiveness of self-enhancement: Operationalization, motivational domain, adjustment facet, and evaluator☆, Journal of Research in Personality, August 2008, 42 (4): 839–853 [12 December 2011], doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2007.11.005. 
  44. ^ Taylor, S. E., Lerner, J. S., Sherman, D. K., Sage, R. M., & McDowell, N. K.; Lerner, JS; Sherman, DK; Sage, RM; McDowell, NK, Portrait of the self-enhancer: Well adjusted and well liked or maladjusted and friendless?, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2003, 84 (1): 165–176, PMID 12518977, doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.1.165 
  45. ^ Bonanno, G. A., Rennicke, C., & Dekel, S.; Rennicke, C; Dekel, S, Self-enhancement among high-exposure survivors of the September 11th terrorist attack: Resilience or social maladjustment?, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2005, 88 (6): 984–998, PMID 15982117, doi:10.1037/0022-3514.88.6.984 

来源编辑

延伸阅读编辑

  • Edward Chin-Ho Chang: Self-Criticism and Self-Enhancement. American Psychological Association, 2008 ISBN 978-1-4338-0115-0
  • Hogg, Michael A.; Cooper, Joel, The Sage Handbook of Social Psychology, Sage, 2003, ISBN 978-0-7619-6636-4 
  • Mark R Leary & June Price Tangney: Handbook of Self and Identity. Guilford Press, 2005 ISBN 978-1-59385-237-5

外部链接编辑