荷兰西印度公司

荷蘭西印度公司旗帜
荷兰西印度公司大楼,1623年到1647年的阿姆斯特丹的总部

特许西印度公司荷蘭語Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie,简称GWC),通称荷兰西印度公司,创建于1621年6月3日,是荷兰聯省共和國时期仿东印度公司模式建立的特许公司,被荷兰政府特许在巴西、加勒比海群岛和北美洲为进行大西洋奴隶贸易。成立之初只是為了打破西班牙及葡萄牙對西方貿易權的壟斷,以及將對西戰爭的壓力從本土轉移到泛大西洋地區。在十七世紀初期到十八世紀曾對整個西半球的貿易,殖民,海盜等各方面擁有巨大的影響力。公司于1674年因债务未偿还而解体,但因为贩卖农奴的高额利润和巨大需求,以及现存的诸多殖民地的,第二家西印度公司于1675年诞生,史称为第二西印度公司或新西印度公司。主要航线与第一家重叠,所有的船舶等财产归第二西印度公司所有。它大约拥有六百万荷兰盾的资产,其中主要由阿姆斯特丹分部贡献。第二西印度公司在1792年關閉,爾後在1800年左右還出現「第三西印度公司」,但未成功建立。

参考资料编辑

  • 張亞中,小國崛起——轉捩點上的關鍵抉擇,聯經出版事務股份有限公司,2008年,ISBN 978-957-08-3247-1

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