菲律賓裔美國人

菲律賓裔美國人(英語:Filipino Americans,菲律賓語:Mga Pilipinong Amerikano)為祖先來自菲律賓美國人,簡稱Fil-Am,部分人自稱皮諾伊英语Pinoy,其歷史可追溯至16世紀[14],18世紀起美國開始出現菲律賓裔的聚落[15],1898年美西戰爭西班牙與美國簽訂巴黎條約,將菲律賓割讓給美國後始有大量菲律賓人移民美國[16][17]。截至2018年,菲律賓裔美國人有約410萬人,在加利福尼亞州夏威夷州伊利諾州德克薩斯州紐約都會區均有大型聚落[18]

菲律賓裔美國人
Filipino Americans
Mga Pilipinong Amerikano
Pinoydayparade2.JPG
總人口
超過400萬人[1]
分佈地區
菲律賓裔美國人人口統計英语Demographics of Filipino Americans 截至2010年
加利福尼亚州1,474,707人[2]
夏威夷州342,095人[3]
伊利诺伊州139,090人[4]
德克萨斯州137,713人[5]
华盛顿州137,083人[6]
新泽西州126,793人[7]
纽约州126,129人[8]
内华达州123,891人[9]
佛罗里达州122,691人[10]
語言
英语美国英语菲律賓英語[11]
他加祿語 (菲律賓語)[11][12]
伊洛卡诺语邦阿西楠語邦板牙語比科爾語英语Bikol languages米沙鄢語宿霧語希利蓋農語瓦瑞語查瓦卡諾語)與其他菲律賓語言
日语[11]菲律賓西班牙語英语Philippine Spanish汉语咱人话菲律賓華語英语Mandarin Chinese in the Philippines)(華裔菲律賓人)[13]
宗教信仰
天主教新教佛教無宗教
相关族群
海外菲律賓人

背景编辑

 
路易斯安那聖馬洛英语Saint Malo, Louisiana的菲律賓聚落

菲律賓水手為最早航行至美洲的亞洲人[19],早在1587年在今加利福尼亞州的莫羅貝即有菲律賓人出現的紀錄[20]。18世紀始有菲律賓裔的小型聚落[21],1763年西班牙治下的路易斯安那英语Louisiana (New Spain)出現了第一個菲律賓人的長期聚落[22],在當地被稱為「馬尼拉人」(Manilamen),曾參加1812年戰爭末期的紐奧良戰役[23]。19世紀開始有菲律賓人在牧場工作[24]。1898年美西戰爭西班牙與美國簽訂巴黎條約,將菲律賓割讓給美國後始有大量菲律賓人移民美國,1904年在聖路易舉辦的世界博覽會英语Louisiana Purchase Exposition中即有展出菲律賓人[25][26]。1920年代又有許多菲律賓的非技術勞工為尋求工作機會而移民美國[27]

1930年代菲律賓裔的移民潮一度下降,1946年菲律賓獨立英语Treaty of Manila (1946)後,移民至美國的菲律賓人持續增加[28],《1965年美國移民和國籍法案英语Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965》後移民的菲律賓人大多為專業人士與技術工人[27]2010年美國人口普查結果顯示全國有約340萬名菲律賓裔美國人[29],2011年美國國務院估計其人數應為400萬左右,約合美國人口的1.1%[30],是亞裔美國人中人數次多的,僅次於華裔美國人[31][32],也是海外菲律賓人中人數最多者[33]

文化编辑

菲律賓裔美國人的文化包括西方與東方的許多元素[34],他們會組成社群團體以維繫家庭般的歸屬感,此為菲律賓文化的特色之一[35],加州與夏威夷等菲裔較集中的地區有較緊密的社群[36],有些社群形成了菲裔住宅、商店集中的街區「小馬尼拉英语Little Manila[37],如洛杉磯舊菲律賓城舊金山馬尼拉城英语Manilatown, San Francisco[38]戴利城(約四成人口為菲裔[39])與周邊城鎮、聖地牙哥的納雄耐爾城(約兩成人口為菲裔)[40]、紐約皇后區伍德賽德英语Woodside, Queens(約15%人口為菲裔)[41]、紐澤西州的伯根菲爾德英语Bergenfield, New Jersey(約兩成人口為菲裔)[42]、夏威夷歐胡島懷帕胡(超過一半人口為菲裔[43],建有菲律賓社區中心英语FilCom Center[44])等。

菲律賓裔美國人雖來自亞洲,但因曾為西班牙殖民地,有時也被視為(或自我認同為)拉丁裔[45][46],不過2017年的一項調查顯示僅有約1%的菲律賓裔美國人自認為「西裔」[47]

語言编辑

 
他加祿語在美國各州的使用情形

因菲律賓曾為美國統治,英語為菲律賓的官方語言之一,多數菲律賓人可流利使用英語[48][49],1990年的亞裔美國人中,菲律賓裔為語言隔閡最小的族群[50]。2003年菲律賓主要的語言他加祿語為美國使用人數排行第五的語言,共有126.2萬人使用[12],2011年已躍升為排行第四的語言[51],加州許多公告、文件都有他加祿語的版本[52],有些中學和大學也設有他加祿語課程[53]。其他菲律賓語言中,伊洛卡諾語為夏威夷除英文外使用人數第三多的語言,僅次於日語和他加祿語[54],也有些菲律賓裔家庭中使用宿霧語[55]邦阿西楠語希利蓋農語邦板牙語比科爾語英语Bikol languages瓦瑞語[56],不過第二代、第三代的菲裔美國人常會失去菲律賓語言能力[57]。另外還有些菲裔華人使用漢語咱人話)或西班牙語英语Philippine Spanish[13]

宗教编辑

菲律賓裔美國人宗教(2012)[58]

  天主教(65%)
  新教福音派(12%)
  主流新教(9%)
  無宗教(8%)
  其他基督宗教(3%)
  佛教(1%)
  其他宗教(2%)

菲律賓裔天主教徒初到美國時常難以融入本地的天主教會[59][60],而建立了許多自己的天主教會[59][61],如洛杉磯的聖高隆邦菲律賓教堂(St. Columban Filipino Church)[62]與紐約的聖李樂倫小堂(得名自菲律賓第一位被封聖的聖徒李樂倫[63]。1997年聖母無玷始胎國家朝聖地聖殿中設立了菲裔的禮拜堂[64]

2010年菲律賓裔天主教徒為美國亞裔天主教徒中最大的群體,占超過75%[65]。2015年65%的菲律賓裔美國人自認為天主教徒(2004年則為68%[66][67],第一代移民比在美國出生者更常參加彌撒[68]

飲食编辑

 
聖地牙哥納雄耐爾城的一家快樂蜂速食餐館

相較於菲律賓裔的人口比例,美國的菲律賓餐館並不多[69][70][71],餐館不是菲裔族群主要的經濟來源[72],即使在菲裔比例相當高的夏威夷歐胡島,菲律賓料理都不如其他亞洲料理普遍[73],有一項研究顯示菲律賓料理很少被列在食物頻率問卷英语Food Frequency Questionnaire[74]。菲律賓料理不普及的可能原因包括殖民化心态英语colonial mentality[71]、定位不明確[71]、菲裔較習慣在家自煮或偏好其他類型的飲食等[70][75],不過菲律賓料理仍流行於菲裔族群間[76],有些為菲裔美國人設立的餐館和雜貨點,如知名的菲律賓速食餐館快樂蜂[69][77][78]

2010年代起菲律賓餐館逐漸成長。2016年美食雜誌《Bon Appétit英语Bon Appétit》將華盛頓特區的菲律賓餐館Bad Saint英语Tom Cunanan評為全美國第二名的新餐館[79],2018年《Food & Wine英语Food & Wine》雜誌將洛杉磯的菲律賓餐館Lasa列為年度最佳餐館之一[80],美食評論家安德魯·席莫認為菲律賓料理將成為美國料理的「下一波熱潮」(the next big thing)[81]。不過2017年《時尚 (Vogue)》雜誌曾形容菲律賓料理常被誤解與忽略[82],2019年《SF Weekly英语SF Weekly》雜誌形容菲律賓料理非主流、常被忽視、流行程度起伏不定[83]

政治编辑

 
華府的菲律賓駐美大使館英语Embassy of the Philippines in Washington,第二次世界大戰期間曾為菲律賓自由邦流亡政府總部

菲律賓裔美國人(特別是隨第二波移民潮落腳美國者[84])傳統上為政治保守派[85]2004年美國總統選舉中投給喬治·沃克·布希者接近投給民主黨候選人約翰·福布斯·凱瑞者的兩倍[86],但2008年投給巴拉克·歐巴馬者有50%至58%,僅有42%至46%投給共和黨候選人約翰·馬侃[87][88],是菲律賓裔美國人首次在總統大選中偏向支持民主黨提名的候選人[89]

因菲律賓裔美國人社群分散,菲裔候選人難以僅靠此族群的選票當選[90]。首位當選公職的菲裔美國人為彼得·阿杜加英语Peter Aduja,於1954年當選夏威夷州眾議院議員[91]。近年來菲律賓裔參政人數逐漸增加,本·卡耶塔諾英语Benjamin J. Cayetano(民主黨籍)於1994年至2002年擔任夏威夷州州長,是首位擔任州長的菲裔美國人[92]內華達州參議員約翰·恩賽(共和黨籍)有八分之一的菲律賓血統;曾任俄亥俄州眾議員史提夫·奧地利(共和黨籍)和加州眾議員T·J·考克斯英语TJ Cox(民主黨籍)也是菲裔美國人,均有一半菲律賓血統[93]

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