費爾南多·佩索阿

葡萄牙作家

费尔南多·佩索阿葡萄牙语Fernando Pessoa,1888年6月13日-1935年11月30日),生於里斯本,是葡萄牙詩人與作家。 他生前以詩集《使命》而聞名於世。 他被認為是繼路易·德贾梅士之後最偉大的葡語作家。文評家卜倫在他的作品《西方正典》形容為他是與諾貝爾獎得主巴勃魯·聶魯達最能夠代表二十世紀的詩人。在2007年票選最偉大的葡萄牙人英语Os Grandes Portugueses中,他排名第八。

費爾南多·佩索亞,1928年

寫作風格编辑

他在文學上以「創造」性格聞名,我們稱這種寫作手法為「異名」(Heteronymy)。各個「異名者」(heteronyms)有着不同的阅历、性格与人生哲学。異名者与作者「自我」之间常常互通书信,交流思想。在眾多角色中,以「自我」加上另外三個「異名者」最為成熟及最廣為人知。三個「異名者」分別是Álvaro de Campos、Ricardo Reis和Alberto Caeiro。在他們當中,「自我」通常都是最能夠帶出真理、存在及個性等深層哲學意義的角色。

自我(Ortónimo)编辑

「佩索亞的自我」性格很全面,本身也是個作家,但是總離不開士巴斯梯斯式的愛國主義思想。他的「自我」在某程度上深受一些宗教理念影響,如通神論思想及共濟會的宗教觀。故此,「自我」的詩詞充滿神話及史詩式的氣魄,有時還有一種悲劇的味道。他作為一個普世主義(Universalism)詩人,他的世界觀可能受到東方及理性主義哲學思想所影響,顯得相當矛盾,他同時接受單一及多方面的世界觀。所以,這倒令佩索亞有十足的理由把其他的三個「異名者」連同《使命》中的「半自我」-Bernando Soares從「自我」分開出來。

以葡萄牙歷史人物為背景的詩集《使命》中的佩索亞,就是最能夠代表這個「自我」,這也是他生前唯一出版的詩集。

por: Rui Alexandre N. Costa 12ºano Escola Secundária Paços de Ferreira '04/'05

延伸阅读编辑

图书编辑

  • Gray de Castro, Mariana (ed.). Fernando Pessoa's modernity without frontiers: influences, dialogues, responses页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆). Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK. Rochester, NY; USA: Oxford: Tamesis, 2013, ISBN 9781855662568.
  • Jackson, Kenneth David. Adverse Genres in Fernando Pessoa. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • Jennings, Hubert D. and Carlos Pittella. Fernando Pessoa, the Poet with Many Faces: A biography and anthology. Providence, RI: Gavea-Brown, 2018.
  • Klobucka, Anna and Mark Sabine, (eds.). Embodying Pessoa: Corporeality, Gender, Sexuality. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007.
  • Santos, Maria Irene Ramalho Sousa. Atlantic Poets: Fernando Pessoa's Turn in Anglo-American Modernism. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 2003.
  • Pessoa's Alberto Caeiro. Dartmouth, Mass.: University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 2000.
  • Monteiro, George. Fernando Pessoa and Nineteenth-century Anglo-American Literature. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 2000.
  • Monteiro, George. The Presence of Pessoa: English, American, and Southern African Literary Responses. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1998.
  • Sadlier, Darlene J. An Introduction to Fernando Pessoa, Literary Modernist. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1998.
  • Lancastre, Maria José de and Antonio Tabucchi. Fernando Pessoa: Photographic Documentation and Caption.Paris : Hazan, 1997.
  • Kotowicz, Zbigniew. Fernando Pessoa: Voices of a Nomadic Soul. London: Menard, 1996.
  • Lisboa, Eugénio and L. C. Taylor. A Centenary Pessoa. Manchester, England: Carcanet, 1995.
  • Terlinden-Villepin, Anne. Fernando Pessoa: The Bilingual Portuguese Poet. Brussels: Facultés universitaires Saint-Louis, 1990.
  • McGuirk, Bernard. Three Persons on One: A Centenary Tribute to Fernando Pessoa. Nottingham, England: University of Nottingham, 1988.
  • Green, J. C. R. Fernando Pessoa: The Genesis of the Heteronyms. Isle of Skye: Aquila, 1982.
  • Monteiro, George. The Man Who Never Was: Essays on Fernando Pessoa. Providence, RI: Gávea-Brown, 1982.

文章编辑

  • Anderson, R. N., "The Static Drama of Pessoa, Fernando" Hispanofila (104): 89–97 (January 1992).
  • Bloom, Harold, "Fernando Pessoa" in Genius: A Mosaic of One Hundred Exemplary Creative Minds. New York: Warner Books, 2002.
  • Brown, S.M., "The Whitman Pessoa Connection" Walt Whitman Quarterly Review 9 (1): 1–14 SUM 1991.
  • Bunyan, D, "The South-African Pessoa: Fernando 20th Century Portuguese Poet", English in Africa 14 (1), May 1987, pp. 67–105.
  • Cruz, Anne J., "Masked Rhetoric: Contextuality in Fernando Pessoa's Poems", Romance Notes, vol. XXIX, no. 1 (Fall, 1988), pp. 55–60.
  • De Castro, Mariana, "Oscar Wilde, Fernando Pessoa, and the art of lying". Portuguese Studies 22 (2): 219, 2006.
  • Dyer, Geoff, "Heteronyms" The New Statesman, vol. 4 (6 December 1991), p. 46.
  • Eberstadt, Fernanda, "Proud of His Obscurity", The New York Times Book Review, vol. 96, (1 September 1991), p. 26.
  • Ferari, Patricio. "Proverbs in Fernando Pessoa's works." Proverbium vol. 31, pp. 235–244.
  • Guyer, Leland, "Fernando Pessoa and the Cubist Perspective", Hispania, vol. 70, no. 1 (March 1987), pp. 73–78.
  • Haberly, David T., "Fernando Pessoa: Overview" in Lesley Henderson (Ed.), Reference Guide to World Literature, 2nd ed. St. James Press, 1995.
  • Hicks, J., "The Fascist imaginary in Pessoa and Pirandello" Centennial Review 42 (2): 309–332 SPR 1998.
  • Hollander, John, "Quadrophenia" The New Republic, 7 September 1987, pp. 33–6.
  • Howes, R. W., "Pessoa, Fernando, Poet, Publisher, and Translator", British Library Journal 9 (2): 161–170 1983.
  • Jennings, Hubert D., "In Search of Fernando Pessoa" Contrast 47 – South African Quarterly, vol. 12 no. 3 (June 1979).
  • Lopes J. M., "Cubism and intersectionism in Fernando Pessoa's 'Chuva Obliqua" Texte (15–16),1994, pp.  63–95.
  • Mahr, G., "Pessoa, life narrative, and the dissociative process" in Biography 21 (1) Winter 1998, pp. 25–35.
  • McNeill, Pods, "The aesthetic of fragmentation and the use of personae in the poetry of Fernando Pessoa and W.B. Yeats" Portuguese Studies 19: 110–121 2003.
  • Monteiro, George, "The Song of the Reaper-Pessoa and Wordsworth" Portuguese Studies 5, 1989, pp. 71–80.
  • Muldoon P., "In the hall of mirrors: 'Autopsychography' by Fernando Pessoa" New England Review 23 (4), Fal 2002, pp. 38–52.
  • Pasi, Marco, "September 1930, Lisbon: Aleister Crowley’s lost diary of his Portuguese trip"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆Pessoa Plural, no. 1 (Spring 2012), pp. 253–283.
  • Pasi, Marco & Ferrari, Patricio, "Fernando Pessoa and Aleister Crowley: New discoveries and a new analysis of the documents in the Gerald Yorke Collection"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆Pessoa Plural, no. 1 (Spring 2012), pp. 284–313.
  • Phillips, A., "Pessoa's Appearances" in Promises, Promises. London: Faber and Faber Limited, 2000, pp. 113–124.
  • Ribeiro, A. S., "A tradition of empire: Fernando Pessoa and Germany" Portuguese Studies 21: 201–209, 2005
  • Riccardi, Mattia, "Dionysus or Apollo? The heteronym Antonio Mora as moment of Nietzsche's reception by Pessoa" Portuguese Studies 23 (1), 109, 2007.
  • Rosenthal, David H., "Unpredictable Passions", The New York Times Book Review, 13 December 1987, p. 32.
  • Seabra, J.A., "Pessoa, Fernando Portuguese Modernist Poet", Europe 62 (660): 41–53 1984.
  • Severino, Alexandrino E., "Fernando Pessoa's Legacy: The Presença and After", World Literature Today, vol. 53, no. 1 (Winter, 1979), pp. 5–9.
  • Severino, Alexandrino E., "Pessoa, Fernando – A Modern Lusiad", Hispania 67 (1): 52–60 1984.
  • Severino, Alexandrino E., "Was Pessoa Ever in South Africa?"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆Hispania页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆), vol. 74, no. 3 (September 1991).
  • Sheets, Jane M., "Fernando Pessoa as Anti-Poet: Alberto Caeiro", Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, vol. XLVI, no. 1 (January 1969), pp. 39–47.
  • Sousa, Ronald W., "The Structure of Pessoa's Mensagem", Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, vol. LIX, no. 1, January 1982, pp. 58–66.
  • Steiner, George, "A man of many parts"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆), The Observer, 3 June 2001.
  • Suarez, Jose, "Fernando Pessoa's acknowledged involvement with the occult" Hispania 90 (2): (May 2007), 245–252.
  • Wood, Michael, "Mod and Great" The New York Review of Books, vol. XIX, no. 4 (21 September 1972), pp. 19–22.
  • Zenith, Richard, "Pessoa, Fernando and the Theater of his Self" Performing Arts Journal (44), May 1993, pp. 47–49.

參見编辑

外部連結(葡語)编辑