阿薩姆人

阿薩姆人(英語:Assamese people),是所有生活在印度阿薩姆邦的居民的統稱[24][25],其中包括壯侗語系民族南亞語系民族漢藏語系民族以及印度-雅利安人[26],以阿薩姆語作為其共同身份認同的根據[27],亦有自己的文化[28],故常被視作微型國族[29]

阿萨姆人
Bihu in Assam.jpg
身穿阿萨姆传统服饰的青年
總人口
1530万[1]
分佈地區
 印度15,311,351[2]
阿薩姆邦15,095,797[3]
阿魯納恰爾邦53,951[4]
梅加拉亞邦39,628[5]
比哈爾邦2,087[6]
北方邦10,356[7]
德里8,573[8]
旁遮普邦4,090[9]
卡納塔克邦9,871[10]
泰米爾納德邦2,594[11]
喀拉拉邦5,796[12]
馬哈拉施特拉邦12,842[13]
古加拉特邦3,935[14]
拉札斯坦邦2,877[15]
哈里亞納邦4,204[16]
查謨和克什米爾8,340[17]
那加蘭邦17,201[18]
曼尼普爾邦2,453[19]
特里普拉邦2,129[20]
西孟加拉邦7,342[21]
 孟加拉国5,000[22]
語言
阿萨姆语
宗教信仰
印度教(75.52%) · 伊斯兰教(21.34%) · 基督教(2.14%) · 锡克教(1%)[23]
相关族群
博多-卡恰爾人、藏緬民族台民族印度-雅利安人

語言编辑

通用語阿萨姆语,属印歐语系印度-伊朗语族印度-雅利安語支,與孟加拉語相近。

歷史编辑

「阿薩姆人」作為一個國族身份始於西元16世紀。當時阿洪姆王國孟加拉蘇丹國頻密進犯,國王蘇混發建立此身份以凝聚民心共同抗敵,其後不但成功抗敵,更解放了周邊地區[30]

西元1615年至1671年,莫臥兒帝國頻密進犯,阿洪姆王國不但連連取勝,更進一步控制了布拉馬普特拉河谷西部地區,甚至還吸引了大量的穆斯林士兵和人才投誠、轉而對抗莫臥兒帝國[31],「阿薩姆人」這個共同身份自此深植民心[32],而阿薩姆語亦在此時取代阿洪姆語成為王國的通用語[33]

参见编辑

參考编辑

  1. ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
  2. ^ Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and the mother tongues - 2011 (PDF). [3 November 2019]. 
  3. ^ http://www.populationu.com/in/assam-population
  4. ^ http://www.populationu.com/in/arunachal-pradesh-population
  5. ^ http://www.populationu.com/in/meghalaya-population
  6. ^ http://www.populationu.com/in/bihar-population
  7. ^ http://www.populationu.com/in/uttar-pradesh-population
  8. ^ http://www.populationu.com/in/delhi-population
  9. ^ http://www.populationu.com/in/punjab-population
  10. ^ http://www.populationu.com/in/karnataka-population
  11. ^ http://www.populationu.com/in/tamil-nadu-population
  12. ^ http://www.populationu.com/in/kerala-population
  13. ^ http://www.populationu.com/in/maharashtra-population
  14. ^ http://www.populationu.com/in/gujarat-population
  15. ^ http://www.populationu.com/in/rajasthan-population
  16. ^ http://www.populationu.com/in/haryana-population
  17. ^ http://www.populationu.com/in/jammu-and-kashmir-population
  18. ^ http://www.populationu.com/in/nagaland-population
  19. ^ http://www.populationu.com/in/manipur-population
  20. ^ http://www.populationu.com/in/tripura-population
  21. ^ http://www.populationu.com/in/west-bengal-population
  22. ^ https://www.timesofindia.com/city/guwahati/assamese-rockstar-in-bangladesh-challenges-caacophony/amp_articleshow/73998341.cms[永久失效連結]
  23. ^ Mission roots brings Assamese Sikhs to Punjab. The Times of India. [2017-09-02]. 
  24. ^ Assamese People" definition rocks Assembly, The Hindu. Special Correspondent. 1 April 2015 [15 September 2017]. 
  25. ^ Meet the Axomiya Sikhs. The Tribune (Chandigarh). 24 March 2013. 
  26. ^ Saikia, Yasmin. Fragmented Memories: Struggling to be Tai-Ahom in India. Duke University Press. 2004. ISBN 978-0822386162. 
  27. ^ Saikia, Yasmin. Fragmented Memories: Struggling to be Tai-Ahom in India. Duke University Press. 2004. ISBN 978-0822386162. the group that now identifies as Tai–Ahom were historically seen as Assamese people. However, the term ethnic Assamese is now associated by the Indian government at Delhi with the Assamese speaking Indo-Aryan group (comprising both Hindus and Muslims) of Assam. 
  28. ^ "As a socio-ethnic linguistic community, Assamese culture evolved through many centuries in a melting pot syndrome." (Deka 2005,p.190)
  29. ^ " Assamese micro-nationalism began in the middle of the nineteenth century as an assertion of the autonomy and distinctiveness of Assamese language and culture against the British colonial view of Assam as a periphery of Bengal." (Baruah 1994,p.654)
  30. ^ "The idea of a composite Assamese or Asomiya 'jati' or nationality took shape during the later part of the Ahom rule. This process had started during the first Muslim invasion from neighbouring Bengal in the 16th century when the people were brought under an Ahom or Assamese banner against the common enemy. Not only were the Ahom successful in repelling the Muslim invasions, but by the 1530s the Ahoms had freed the greater part of Kamrup and Kamata from Muslim occupation and "extended their dominion right up to the Karatoya in Murshidabad in the west and almost to close proximity of Dacc". (Misra 1999,p.1264)
  31. ^ "The Ahom rulers gave positions of power and eminence to the Assamese Muslims and the latter took active part in resisting successive Mughal attempts to overrun the region. The assimilation of this segment of Muslims into Assamese society was so complete that the historians who accompanied the Mughal expeditions into Assam noted that they were more Assamese than Muslim." (Misra 1999,p.1264)
  32. ^ "During the rule of the Ahom monarch, Pratap Singha (1603-41) consolidation of the Assamese community was further sped up because of the common fight against Mughal incursions and encroachment on Assam territory. The Ahom victory over the Mughals in early 1616 was followed by the defeat of the Mughal army led by Ram Singh in the Battle of Saraighat in March 1671" (Misra 1999,p.1264)
  33. ^ "Incidentally, literate Ahoms retained the Tai language and script well until the end of the 17th century. In that century of Ahom-Mughal conflicts, this language first coexisted with and then was progressively replaced by Assamese (Asamiya) at and outside the Court." (Guha 1983,p.9)