# 雙精度浮點數

（重定向自雙倍精確浮點數

## 格式

sign bit（符號）：用來表示正負號

exponent（指數）：用來表示次方數

mantissa（尾數）：用來表示精確度

0代表數值為正，1代表數值為負。

### 指數

1. 「11個位元皆為0」
2. 「11個位元皆為1」

000000000002 = 00016當尾數為0時為±0，尾數不為0時為非正規形式的浮點數

111111111112 = 7ff16當尾數為0時為∞，尾數不為0時為NaN

### 尾數

${\displaystyle {\text{1.mantissa}}\times {\text{2}}^{\text{exponent}}}$

 二進位制的  ${\displaystyle {\text{11.101}}\times {\text{2}}^{\text{1001}}}$  可以規格化為 ${\displaystyle {\text{1.1101}}\times {\text{2}}^{\text{1010}}}$ ，儲存時尾数只需要儲存1101即可

 二進位制的  ${\displaystyle {\text{0.00110011}}\times {\text{2}}^{\text{-1001}}}$  可以規格化為 ${\displaystyle {\text{1.10011}}\times {\text{2}}^{\text{-1100}}}$ ，儲存時尾數只需要儲存10011即可


### 小結

${\displaystyle (-1)^{\text{sign}}\times 2^{\text{exponent}}\times 1.{\text{mantissa}}}$

## 例子

 0 01111111111 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002 ≙ 3FF0 0000 0000 000016 ≙ +20 × 1 = 1 0 01111111111 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012 ≙ 3FF0 0000 0000 000116 ≙ +20 × (1 + 2−52) ≈ 1.0000000000000002, the smallest number > 1 0 01111111111 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000102 ≙ 3FF0 0000 0000 000216 ≙ +20 × (1 + 2−51) ≈ 1.0000000000000004 0 10000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002 ≙ 4000 0000 0000 000016 ≙ +21 × 1 = 2 1 10000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002 ≙ C000 0000 0000 000016 ≙ −21 × 1 = −2
 0 10000000000 10000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002 ≙ 4008 0000 0000 000016 ≙ +21 × 1.12 = 112 = 3 0 10000000001 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002 ≙ 4010 0000 0000 000016 ≙ +22 × 1 = 1002 = 4 0 10000000001 01000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002 ≙ 4014 0000 0000 000016 ≙ +22 × 1.012 = 1012 = 5 0 10000000001 10000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002 ≙ 4018 0000 0000 000016 ≙ +22 × 1.12 = 1102 = 6 0 10000000011 01110000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002 ≙ 4037 0000 0000 000016 ≙ +24 × 1.01112 = 101112 = 23 0 01111111000 10000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002 ≙ 3F88 0000 0000 000016 ≙ +2−7 × 1.12 = 0.000000112 = 0.01171875 (3/256)
 0 00000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012 ≙ 0000 0000 0000 000116 ≙ +2−1022 × 2−52 = 2−1074 ≈ 4.9406564584124654 × 10−324 (Min. subnormal positive double) 0 00000000000 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111112 ≙ 000F FFFF FFFF FFFF16 ≙ +2−1022 × (1 − 2−52) ≈ 2.2250738585072009 × 10−308 (Max. subnormal double) 0 00000000001 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002 ≙ 0010 0000 0000 000016 ≙ +2−1022 × 1 ≈ 2.2250738585072014 × 10−308 (Min. normal positive double) 0 11111111110 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111112 ≙ 7FEF FFFF FFFF FFFF16 ≙ +21023 × (1 + (1 − 2−52)) ≈ 1.7976931348623157 × 10308 (Max. Double)
 0 00000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002 ≙ 0000 0000 0000 000016 ≙ +0 1 00000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002 ≙ 8000 0000 0000 000016 ≙ −0 0 11111111111 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002 ≙ 7FF0 0000 0000 000016 ≙ +∞ (positive infinity) 1 11111111111 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002 ≙ FFF0 0000 0000 000016 ≙ −∞ (negative infinity) 0 11111111111 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012 ≙ 7FF0 0000 0000 000116 ≙ NaN (sNaN on most processors, such as x86 and ARM) 0 11111111111 10000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012 ≙ 7FF8 0000 0000 000116 ≙ NaN (qNaN on most processors, such as x86 and ARM) 0 11111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111112 ≙ 7FFF FFFF FFFF FFFF16 ≙ NaN (an alternative encoding of NaN)
 0 01111111101 01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101012 = 3fd5 5555 5555 555516 ≙ +2−2 × (1 + 2−2 + 2−4 + ... + 2−52) ≈ 1/3
 0 10000000000 10010010000111111011010101000100010000101101000110002 = 4009 21fb 5444 2d1816 ≈ pi