黑眉信天翁

黑眉信天翁學名Thalassarche melanophrys)是一種大型及分佈最廣和普遍的信天翁

 
黑眉信天翁
Black-browed Albatross, Beagle Channel.jpg
保护状况
科學分類
界: 動物界 Animalia
門: 脊索動物門 Chordata
綱: 鳥綱 Aves
目: 鸌形目 Procellariiformes
科: 信天翁科 Diomedeidae
屬: Thalassarche
種: 黑眉信天翁 T. melanophrys
二名法
Thalassarche melanophrys
(Temminck 1828)[2]
異名
  • Diomedea melanophris

分類编辑

 
正在飛行的黑眉信天翁。

黑眉信天翁最初是由康拉德·雅各·特明克於1828年基於在好望角發現的標本來描述的,並被分類在信天翁屬[3]

於1998年,有建議將坎伯信天翁從黑眉信天翁中獨立出來成為另一物種[4]。有些學者贊同這個說法[5][6],也有些並不認同[7][8]

特徵编辑

黑眉信天翁是中等體型,長約80-95厘米,翼展2-2.4米,平均重2.9-4.7公斤[9]。牠們的壽命可以超過70歲。翼面及背部呈鮮粉紅色,腹部及臀部呈橙色。翼底主要是白色,有不規則的黑邊。眼眉黑色,喙黃橙色,尖端呈紅橙色。雛鳥的喙呈深角色,頭部及頸圍灰色,翼底深色。

分佈及棲息地编辑

黑眉信天翁分佈在圍繞南極海洋,會在12個島嶼繁殖。在大西洋,牠們分佈在福克蘭群島迭戈拉米雷斯群島(Diego Ramírez Islands)及南喬治亞島。在太平洋,牠們分佈在坎貝爾島安蒂波德斯群島斯奈爾斯群島麥誇里島。在印度洋,牠們分佈在克羅澤群島凱爾蓋朗群島赫德島麥克唐納群島[10]

數量及趨勢[5]
地點 數量 年份 趨勢
福克蘭群島 399,416對 2007年 每年下降0.7%
南喬治亞島 74,296對 2006年 下降
智利 122,000對 2007年
安蒂波德斯群島 不詳 1998年
坎貝爾島 不詳 1998年
赫德島 600對 1998年 上升
麥克唐納群島 不詳 1998年
克羅澤群島 不詳 1998年
凱爾蓋朗群島 不詳 1998年 下降
麥誇里島 不詳 1998年
斯奈爾斯群島 不詳 1998年
總計 600,000對 2005年 下降

於2005年估計牠們的數量有1,220,000隻,及600,853繁殖對。當中的402,571對是在福克蘭群島;72,102對在南喬治亞島;120,171對在智利;600對在赫德島;其餘的則有5,409對[3][11][12]

牠們喜歡在大陸架上覓食。福克蘭群島的群落會飛到近巴塔哥尼亞架(Patagonian Shelf)過冬;南喬治亞島的群落則會到南非海域利用本格拉寒流來覓食;智利的群落會飛到巴塔哥尼亞架、智利架(Chilean Shelf)及遠至新西蘭過冬。牠們的最有可能在北大西洋出現的信天翁。在美國本土就約有20個觀察報告[13]

行為编辑

黑眉信天翁群落非常嘈吵,經常發聲來劃定自己的地盤。牠們會利用尾巴來示愛[9]

覓食编辑

黑眉信天翁吃魚類烏賊甲殼類屍體及漁業的丟棄物[14][15][16]。牠們也會從其他物種中偷取食物[9]

繁殖编辑

 
黑眉信天翁的卵

黑眉信天翁一般會在長滿草叢的陡坡或峭壁上築巢。不過在福克蘭群島上,牠們卻會在岸邊的草坪上築巢[5]。牠們每年只會生產一次,約於9月至11月間,每次只會生一隻蛋。雙親都會協助孵化,孵化期約需68-71天。雛鳥出生後的120-130天就會換羽。幼鳥2-3歲大就會回到群落中,目的是示愛,到了10歲就可以繁殖[9]

保育编辑

 
森德爾斯島的黑眉信天翁的群落。

國際自然保護聯盟基於黑眉信天翁的數量大幅下降而將之列為瀕危。在近南喬治亞島的鳥島,牠們繁殖對的數量每年就減少4%[12],而在凱爾蓋朗群島的數量於1979年至1995年就減少了17%[17]。在迭戈拉米雷斯群島的數量於1980年代就不斷下降,直到近年才有所回升[18][19]。但在福克蘭群島的數量於1980年代則有所上升[10][20],可能是因大量漁業丟棄物所致[21];不過近年當地的數量卻有大幅的下滑[11]。整體而言,牠們的數量在64年間大幅下降了67%[5]

在南方海洋加劇使用延繩釣是令黑眉信天翁數量減少的主因[22][23][24][25]。事實上,黑眉信天翁是最易被漁業所殺死[23][24][26][27][28][29][30]。另外,拖網捕漁也令黑眉信天翁的數量減少,特別是在巴塔哥尼亞架[31]南非附近[32]

黑眉信天翁受到《波昂公約》及《信天翁及海燕保育公約》的保護,其數量受到監察,而繁殖地也受到保護。赫德島麥克唐納群島麥誇里島新西蘭等都被列為世界遺產而獲得加以保護。

參考编辑

  1. ^ Thalassarche melanophrys. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 2010 [2010-10-29]. 
  2. ^ Brands, Sheila. Systema Naturae 2000/Classification - Diomedea subg. Thalassarche -. Project: The Taxonomicon. 2008-08-14 [2009-02-22]. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Robertson, G.; Moreno, C. A.; Lawton, K.; Arata, J.; Valencia, J.; Kirkwood, R. An estimate of the population sizes of Black-browed (Thalassarche melanophrys) and Grey-headed (T. chrysostoma) Albatross breeding in the Diego Ramírez Archipelago, Chile. Emu. 2007, (107): 239–244. 
  4. ^ Robertson, C. J. R.; Nunn, G. B. Towards a new taxonomy for albatrosses. (编) Robertson, G.; Gales, R. Albatross biology and conservation. Chipping Norton, Australia: Surrey Beatty & Sons. 1998: 13–9. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 BirdLife International. Black-browed Albatross - BirdLife Species Factsheet. Data Zone. 2008(a) [2009-02-22]. 
  6. ^ Brooke, M. Procellariidae. Albatrosses And Petrels Across The World. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 2004. ISBN 0-19-850125-0. 
  7. ^ Clements, James. The Clements Checklist of the Birds of the World 6. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 2007. ISBN 978 0 8014 4501 9. 
  8. ^ Remsen Jr., J. V.; et al. A classification of the bird species of South America, South American Classification Committee, American Ornithologists' Union. South American Classification Committee. American Ornithologists' Union. 2008-08-07 [2009-02-22]. (原始内容存档于2009-03-02). 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Robertson, C. J. R. Albatrosses (Diomedeidae). (编) Hutchins, Michael; Jackson, Jerome A.; Bock, Walter J.; Olendorf, Donna. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. 8 Birds I Tinamous and Ratites to Hoatzins. Joseph E. Trumpey, Chief Scientific Illustrator 2. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group: 120. 2003. ISBN 0 7876 5784 0. 
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 Croxall, J. P.; Gales, R. Assessment of the conservation status of albatrosses. (编) Robertson, G.; Gales, R. Albatross biology and conservation. Chipping Norton, Australia: Surrey Beatty & Sons. 1998. 
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 Huin, N.; Reid, T. Census of the Black-browed Albatross population of the Falkland Islands, 2000 and 2005 (PDF). Falklands Conservation. 2007年4月 [2009-02-23]. (原始内容 (pdf)存档于2011-04-10). 
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 Poncet, S.; Robertson, G.; Phillips, R. A.; Lawton, K.; Phalan, B.; Trathan, P. N.; Croxall, J. P. Status and distribution of wandering Black-browed and Grey-headed Albatrosses breeding at South Georgia. Polar Biology. 2006, (29): 772–81. 
  13. ^ Dunn, Jon L.; Alderfer, Jonathan. Albatrosses. (编) Levitt, Barbara. National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America fifth. Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society. 2006: 80. ISBN 978 0 7922 5314 3. 
  14. ^ Cherel, Y.; Weimerskirch, H.; Trouve, C. Dietary evidence for spatial foraging segregation in sympatric albatrosses (Diomedea spp.) rearing chicks at Iles Nuageuses, Kerguelen. Marine Biology. 2002, (141): 1117–29. 
  15. ^ Xavier, J. C.; Croxall, J. P.; Trathan, P. N.; Wood, A. G. Feeding strategies and diets of breeding grey-headed and wandering albatrosses at South Georgia. Marine Biology. 2003, (143): 221–32. 
  16. ^ Arata, J.; Robertson, G.; Valencia, J.; Lawton, K. The Evangelistas Islets, Chile: a new breeding site for black-browed albatrosses. Polar Biology. 2003, (26): 687–90. 
  17. ^ Weimerskirch, H.; Jouventin, P. Changes in population sizes and demographic parameters of six albatross species breeding on the French sub-antarctic islands. (编) Robertson, G.; Gales, R. Albatross biology and conservation. Chipping Norton, Australia: Surrey Beatty and Sons. 1998: 84–91. 
  18. ^ Schlatter, R. P. The status and conservation of seabirds in Chile. (编) Croxall, J. P.; Evans, P. G. H.; Schreiber, R. W. Status and conservation of the world's seabirds. Cambridge, U.K.: International Council for Bird Preservation (Techn. Publ.). 1984: 261–9. 
  19. ^ Arata, J.; Moreno, C. A. Progress report of Chilean research on albatross ecology and conservation. Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources Working Group on Fish Stock Assessment. 2002. 
  20. ^ Gales, R. Albatross populations: status and threats. (编) Robertson, G.; Gales, R. Albatross biology and conservation. Chipping Norton, Australia: Surrey Beatty & Sons. 1998. 
  21. ^ Thompson, K. R.; Riddy, M. D. Utilisation of offal discards from finfish trawlers around the Falkland Islands by the Black-browed Albatross Diomedea melanophris. Ibis. 1995, (137): 198–206. 
  22. ^ Prince, P. A.; Croxall, J. P.; Trathan, P. N.; Wood, A. G. The pelagic distribtuion of South Georgia albatrosses and their relationships with fisheries. (编) Robertson, G.; Gales, R. Albatross biology and conservation. Chipping Norton, Australia: Surrey Beatty & Sons. 1998. 
  23. ^ 23.0 23.1 Schiavini, A.; Frere, E.; Gandini, P.; Garcia, N.; Crespo, E. Albatross-fisheries interactions in Patagonian shelf waters. (编) Robertson, G.; Gales, R. Albatross biology and conservation. Chipping Norton, Australia: Surrey Beatty & Sons. 1998: 208–13. 
  24. ^ 24.0 24.1 Stagi, A.; Vaz-Ferreira, R.; Marin, Y.; Joseph, L. The conservation of albatrosses in Uruguayan waters. (编) Robertson, G.; Gales, R. Albatross biology and conservation. Chipping Norton, Australia: Surrey Beatty & Sons. 1998: 220–4. 
  25. ^ Tuck, G.; Polacheck, T. Trends in tuna long-line fisheries in the Southern Oceans and implications for seabird by-catch: 1997 update (CCSBT-ERS/97). Hobart, Australia: Division of Marine Research. 1997. 
  26. ^ Gales, R.; Brothers, N.; Reid, T. Seabird mortality in the Japanese tuna longline fishery around Australia, 1988-1995. Biological Conservation. 1998, (86): 37–56. 
  27. ^ Murray, T. E.; Bartle, J. A.; Kalish, S. R.; Taylor, P. R. Incidental capture of seabirds by Japenese southern bluefin tuna longline vessels in New Zealand waters, 1988-1992. bird conservationalist internationalbird conservationalist international. 1993, (3): 181–210. 
  28. ^ Ryan, P.G.; Boix-Hinzen, C. Tuna long-line fisheries off southern Africa: the need to limit seabird bycatch. South African Journal of Science. 1998, (94): 179–182. 
  29. ^ Ryan, P. G.; Keith, D.G.; Kroese, M. Seabird bycatch by tuna longline fisheries off southern Africa, 1998-2000. South African Journal of Science. 2002, (24): 103. 
  30. ^ Reid, T. A.; Sullivan, B. J. Longliners, black-browed albatross mortality and bait scavenging in Falkland Island waters: what is the relationship?. Polar Biology. 2004, (27): 131–9. 
  31. ^ Sullivan, B.; Reid, T. Seabird interactions/mortality with longliners and trawlers in the Falkland/Malvinas Island waters. Unpublished report. CCAMLR-WG-FSA-02/36. 2002. 
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外部連結编辑